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FLOWCHARTING is a means of visually presenting: 1. 2. 3. the flow of data through an information processing systems, the operations performed within the system and the sequence in which they are performed ANALOGY: blueprint of a building a designer draws a blueprint before starting construction on a building program flowchart a programmer prefers to draw a flowchart prior to writing a computer program THE FLOWCHART: ã ã ã ã ã ã ã is drawn according to defined rules and using standard flowchart
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    FLOWCHARTING is a means of visually presenting:1. the flow of data through an information processing systems,2. the operations performed within the system and3. the sequence in which they are performed ANALOGY: blueprint of a building program flowcharta designer draws a blueprint before startingconstruction on a buildinga programmer prefers to draw a flowchart priorto writing a computer program THE FLOWCHART: ã is drawn according to defined rules and using standard flowchart symbols prescribed by theAmerican National Standard Institute, Inc ã is a diagrammatic representation that illustrates the sequence of operations to be performedto get the solution of a problem ã is generally drawn in the early stages of formulating computer solutions ã facilitates communication between programmers and business people ã plays a vital role in the programming of a problem ã is quite helpful in understanding the logic of complicated and lengthy problems ã is a must for the better documentation of a complex programOnce the flowchart is drawn, it becomes easy to write the program in any high level language STANDARD SYMBOLS Start or end of the programComputational steps or processing function of a programInput or output operationDecision making and branchingFlow lineAnnotationConnector or joining of two parts of programDisplay  GUIDELINES FOR FLOWCHARTING a. In drawing a proper flowchart, all necessary requirements should be listed out in logicalorder.b. The flowchart should be clear, neat and easy to follow. There should not be any room forambiguity in understanding the flowchart.c. The usual direction of the flow of a procedure or system is from left to right or top tobottom.d. Only one flow line should come out from a process symbol. or e. Only one flow line should enter a decision symbol, but two or three flow lines, one foreach possible answer, should leave the decision symbol.f. Only one flow line is used in conjunction with terminal symbol.g. Write within standard symbols briefly. As necessary, you can use the annotation symbolto describe data or computational steps more clearly.h. If the flowchart becomes complex, it is better to use connector symbols to reduce thenumber of flow lines. Avoid the intersection of flow lines if you want to make it moreeffective and better way of communication.i. Ensure that the flowchart has a logical start  and finish.   j. It is useful to test the validity of the flowchart by passing through it with a simple test data.  ADVANTAGES OF USING FLOWCHARTS The benefits of flowcharts are as follows: 1. Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system to allconcerned.2. Effective analysis: With the help of flowchart, problem can be analysed in more effectiveway.3. Proper documentation: Program flowcharts serve as a good program documentation,which is needed for various purposes.4. Efficient Coding: The flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint during the systems analysisand program development phase.5. Proper Debugging: The flowchart helps in debugging process.6. Efficient Program Maintenance: The maintenance of operating program becomes easywith the help of flowchart. It helps the programmer to put efforts more efficiently on thatpart LIMITATIONS OF USING FLOWCHARTS 1. Complex logic: Sometimes, the program logic is quite complicated. In that case,flowchart becomes complex and clumsy.2. Alterations and Modifications: If alterations are required the flowchart may require re-drawing completely.3. Reproduction: As the flowchart symbols cannot be typed, reproduction of flowchartbecomes a problem. (Not Totally True…. Can be drawn in WORD, but difficult to alwayswrite in… use text boxes)4. The essentials of what is done can easily be lost in the technical details of how it is done.  FEW EXAMPLES ON FLOWCHARTINGExample 1 Draw a flowchart to find the sum of first 50 natural numbers.
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