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Global Journal of Management and Business Research Vol. 10 Issue 1 (Ver 1.0), Febuary 2010 P a g e | 132 The Role of Life Skills Training on Self-Efficacy, Self Esteem, Life Interest, and Role Behavior for Unemployed Youth Muafi, Anis Siti Hartati and Hendri Gusaptono* Abstract- The impact of global crisis has a big effect on unemployed rate and poverty in Indonesia generally and in Lamongan Regency particularly. This research investigates the role of life skills training in influencing self e
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  Global Journal of Management and Business Research Vol. 10 Issue 1 (Ver 1.0), Febuary 2010Page| 132   The Role of Life Skills Training on Self-Efficacy,Self Esteem, Life Interest, and Role Behavior forUnemployed Youth Muafi, Anis Siti Hartati and Hendri Gusaptono*   Abstract- The impact of global crisis has a big effect onunemployed rate and poverty in Indonesia generally and inLamongan Regency particularly. This research investigates therole of life skills training in influencing self efficacy, self esteem, life interest and role behavior for unemployed youth inPaciran sub district.It is a survey research by experiment research type. Therespondents are participants from youth drop of schoolparticularly unemployed youth in Paciran sub district,Lamongan regency, East Java. The technique of samplingutilizes purposive sampling. The amount of sample, whichrequired the criteria to be examining, is 73 respondents. Thetechnique of statistics applied in this research is paired samplest test. The result of hypothesis examining explains that there isdifferences of self efficacy, self esteem, life interest and rolebehavior before and after training. Keywords- life skills, self-esteem, self-efficacy, lifeinterest, role behavior. I   I NTRODUCTION The quality of human resources is a challenge that should beface in this 21-century and the next centuries. A nationwhich has qualified human resources will win the globalcompetition and survive in the future. Therefore, theparadigm of qualified educational system must orientate onthe increasing of community life skills. Indonesia is stillburied cause of neglecting educational development in thepast. Through the life skill program, it is hoped the qualityof Indonesian human resources will be better (Tampubolon,2002; Satori, 2002; Galib, 2002). Skill education becomes aneed, in order they will have relevant life skill with theoccasion of work opportunities (Tampubolon, 2002). Byacquiring life skill the unemployed youth will arouse theirself esteem and self efficacy with the result that increasetheir life interest and role behavior.*Dept.of Management Economic, University of Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta (UPNVY),SWK 104 Ringroad Utara Condong Catur YogyakartaIndonesia 55283Tel: +6181328058966, +618122747563, +618122717294Email: muafipaciran@gmail.comWe would like to thanks to Direktorat Jenderal PendidikanTinggi (Dirjen Dikti) Indonesia which had give grant to thisresearch with scheme Hibah Kompetitif Penelitian SesuaiPrioritas Nasional 2009.There is a manpower problem in Lamongan regency. Theproblems are the increasing number of work force whilelimited volume of field of work, the less of skills onsomeone looking for a job and the tight and limitedcompetition in the market of manpower. Moreover, the oneof objectives in the Work Plan 2010 in Lamongan Regencyis decreasing unemployed rate in the community as 97%.According to the data, in Lamongan regency the biggestpopulation density rate is in Paciran sub district (Lamongandalam Angka, 2009). By developing Wisata BahariLamongan (WBL), Maharani Gua and Zoo, along withindustrial growing in Paciran sub district may have asignificant contribution for the government in wiping outpoverty (pro poor), industrial sector (pro growth) and thecommunity itself (pro job). Wisata Bahari Lamongan(Lamongan Maritime Tourism) and Maharani Gua Zoo arenear Sunan Drajat Grave, these are crossed Paciran, Kranji,Sendang and Blimbing villages. These villages haveabundant potentiality in natural resources from maritime andtourism. Based on the researcher observation, maritimeproduce and tourism potentiality have not arousing lifeinterest and role behavior of youth particularly unemployedyouth in the villages. It is supported by Dhuha (2008)research; it explains that the existing of WBL, LamonganIntegrated Shorebase (LIS) and other economicpotentialities may not be experienced by surrounding youth.There are not many Paciran youth take strategic position.Furthermore, this problem can be solved through togethermoving by community empowering such as life skills. It isbelieved that life skills can give positive influence towardindividual self-efficacy and self esteem and then it impliedto life interest and role behavior from unemployed youth. II   L ITERATURE REVIEW Global life gives a challenge and open opportunitiesautomatically for economic development and qualifiedIndonesian human resources taking competition for work opportunity in Indonesia and abroad (Tampubolon, 2002). Incommunity development, an educational discourse oftencannot follow acceleration of community dynamics.Community exchange caused by knowledge and technologydiscoveries cannot be anticipated soon. The educationalinstitution will be left in creating a relevant study process.Heterogeneity of educational level in Indonesia can be seenin Indonesian archipelago community. In rural area, thereare some graduated and literate inhabitants however; some  Page| 133 Vol. 10 Issue 1 (Ver 1.0), January2010 Global Journal of Management and Business Research of them still illiteracy too. Moreover, at elementary schoolgrade there are graduated and drop out students but it stillmany uneducated children who never feel the elementaryschool. The same thing is also happened on junior andsenior high school. The main causes are poverty and  parents‘ inability to finance their children goes to higherschool grade. The other causes are: (1) limited opportunityin formal education and other technical skills for children(youth), (2) increasing of drop out youth and uneducatedyouth, (3) limited functional illiterate youth and (4) theworse quality of youth human resources (Tampubolon,2002).Recently, to solve this problem the community is acquaintedwith the concept of life skill education. Life skill educationhas orientation on students acquiring ability and havingbased capital to live autonomy and surviving in theircommunity. Kurnia (2002) points that life skill educationapplied in Indonesia because the curriculum content tends toonly academic-theoretic skills. It is also lack attention tomany needs and empirical problems surrounding the students‘ growth. It causes students cannot be able to applytheir study ability with their needs and communityproblems. The essence of school as a development vehicleof individual personality to be smart intellectually, morallyand socially has reduced becomes a means for social statueonly. Therefore, it is not surprised that although the outputseem smart they lack of experience and creativity. Since theknowledge they studied cannot give much utility moreoverto do some exchange toward deviation in society.To solve this problem it is necessary a skill education thatappropriate to work opportunity needed by the society byconsidering a talent and interest, and probability they canwork autonomy or to be employee. This approach is human,it means that an acknowledgment they have potent todevelop. The problem of work opportunity for youth work force caused not only by the limited of job vacancy but alsothey are not already to work since lack of expected skillqualification. It can be happened because most of themgraduated from public school not vocational school. In fact,a graduated from a vocational school is not guarantee to bealready working. If development is meant a plan exchangeto raise society life quality, the development must focus onpreparing field of work and qualified human resources(Tampubolon, 2002).The above reality causes increasing the amount of unemployed youth directly. They do not have skills to work autonomy particularly in informal sector. The last choice iswork seasonally as manual laborer with lower-paid,however there are some of them work as family worker inthe farm. The consequences are majority unemployed andlive in many cities. Live in-unemployed causes decreasingof self-efficacy, self esteem life interest and role behavior.They usually get frustration and involved in juveniledelinquencies, crime, a gang fight and the worse in drugabuse. Some facts show empirically that dissatisfaction,frustration and not conducive environment stimulate theminvolved in the above problems. Why do they get frustrationand dissatisfaction? Since their parents compel them or theyforce themselves to go to junior or senior high school thatthe curriculum are only understood by smart students, butthey are not able to follow it. As the result, they do againstthe good values and norms. Looking for a job they do nothave any skills so they escape from the facts and performingdestructively.Creed et al. (1996) observes the importance of skillprograms from trainings that have relation to self-esteemand self-efficacy for unemployed youth. It will have impactfor a long term. Creed et al. (2001) explains that anunemployed youth will be eagerly looking forward to offertraining. They hope eagerly the training will influence theirself-esteem and self-efficacy to search for a job. Eden andAviram (1993) concluded that individuals of low generalself-efficacy should be given priority access to scarcebehavioral-modeling training resources.Kreitner and Kinicki (2007) explain that self-efficacy is a  person‘s belief about his or her chances o f successfullyaccomplishing a specific task. Self-efficacy arises from thegradual acquisition of complex cognitive, social, linguistic,and/or physical skills through experience. Researchers havedocumented strong linkages between high self-efficacyexpectation and success in widely varied physical andmental tasks, anxiety reduction, addiction control, paintolerance, illness recovery, avoidance of seasickness innaval cadets, and stress avoidance. Oppositely, those withlow self-efficacy expectations tend to have low successrates.Several studies have also evaluated self-esteem outcomesfor unemployed people who attend training programs (Creedet al., 2001). Muller (1992 in Creed et al., 2001) studied theeffects of personal development courses on unemployed women‘s level of  self-esteem and depression and fond thatparticipants improved significantly more on both than thecontrol group. Self-esteem benefits from the course weremaintained at follow up.Gist and Mitchell (1992) examine the significance of self-efficacy, which has close relation to one skill level. Sometraining held by an organization will be able increasing oneself-efficacy. It is supported by an argument that sometraining methods can arouse self-efficacy in the self-management areas (Frayne and Lathan, 1987), cognitivemodel (Gist, 1989) and behavior model (Gist, Schwoererand Rosen, 1989). Self-efficacy is associated with work related performance, coping with difficult career-relatedtask, career choice, learning achievement and adaptability tonew technology (Gist and Mitchell, 1992).Related to life interest, it is defined as a relative long wish inlife but difficult explaining through one personality. It is notonly a hobby or a moment enthusiasm toward a job but alsoit more than that (Butler and Waldroop, 2004). Life interestis not examining where the best performance, but it is verydetermining a kind of job that make someone feel in long-term satisfaction and happiness. A way to understand onelife interest can be through job sculpting, it is an art toexplore and understand one life interest so it can conform to one‘s job in order they can express their life interest from the deeply embedded life interest (Budiadi, 2004; Butler andWaldroop, 2004). These interests are not hobbies  –  opera,skiing, and so forth  –  nor are they topical enthusiasms, such  Global Journal of Management and Business Research Vol. 10 Issue 1 (Ver 1.0), Febuary 2010Page| 134   as Chinese history, the stock market or oceanography.Instead, deeply embedded life interest are long held,emotionally driven passion, intricately entwined withpersonality, and thus born of an indeterminate mix of natureand nurture. Deeply embedded life interest does notdetermine what people are good at  –  they drive what kindsof activities make them happy. At work, that happiness oftentranslate into commitment. It keeps people engaged, and itkeeps them from quitting (Butler and Waldroop, 2004).In their research, Butler and Waldroop (1999) found onlyeight deeply embedded life interests for people drawn to jobcareers. The following is a summary of each: application of technology, quantitative analysis, theory development andconceptual thinking, creative production, counseling andmentoring, managing people and relationship, enterprisecontrol, and influence through language and ideas. Someonecan have one or more interests on those field, where he feelenjoy and happy doing his job.In this research, life skills will be implemented by givingtrainings that it will have significant role toward self-efficacy, self esteem, life interest and role behavior forunemployed youth in future. Generally, The result of research shows that there is a positive relation between self efficacy and behavioral intention (Ramayah and Harun,2005; Kristiansen and Indarti, 2003; Zhao et al., 2005;Linan, 2008), and behavioral intention toward behavior(Dharmmesta, 1992; 1998; Wijaya, 2008; Lin and Lee,2004; Muafi, 2008). While self esteem also has positiveinfluence to behavioral intention in changing behavior(Peterson, et. al., 2008). Self-esteem is a belief about one‘s own self worth based on an overall self-evaluation (Kreitnerand Kinicki, 2007). In this research the examined behavioris role behavior from unemployed youth. Noe et. al., (2006)states that role behavior are the behavior required by anindividual in his or her role as a jobholder in a social work environment. Grundy and Wensley (1999) give a name torole behavior by strategic behavior, like an attempt to makea better life quality than others. Strategic behavior is alsosignificant as it helps to understand the behavioral process.This literature has been used to develop the conceptualframework for this study as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Research Model of The Role of Life Skills Training on Self Efficacy, Self Esteem, Life Interest and RoleBehavior for Unemployed Youth HypothesisBased on the research model, this study hypothesis that:H1. There is difference of self-efficacy from unemployedyouth before and after training.H2. There is difference of self-esteem from unemployedyouth before and after training.H3. There is difference of life interest from unemployedyouth before and after training.H4. There is difference of role behavior from unemployedyouth before and after training. III   R ESEARCH METHODOLOGY Based on the characteristics of research problem, thisresearch is an experiment research. In the experimentresearch, the researcher takes manipulation or controltoward at least one independent variable that is theimplementation of life skills, looking at the influence of thetreatment toward dependent variable like self efficacy, self esteem, life interest and role behavior.The research implies the experiment quasi method withcontrol group by One Group Pretest-Posttest DesignApproach. This design utilizes one sample group with twicequestionnaire; they are before experiment questionnaire(before training) (01) called pretest, and after experimentquestionnaire (after training) (02) called posttest. Pretest andposttest are conducted by the determined questionnaire(Hair, et. al., 1998).This research is called a longitudinal survey researchbecause the research sample is certain population membersduring the survey taken. They are unemployed youth thatdrop out of school and their age between 15 and 25 yearsold. The names of sample are listed, and they do not change  Page| 135 Vol. 10 Issue 1 (Ver 1.0), January2010 Global Journal of Management and Business Research their position along the survey carried out, and then it willbe collecting information from them is directed.This study applies non-probability sample design (purposivetechnique). The amount of respondent who involved in thetraining is 73 respondents. The type of questionnaire isclosed questionnaire and asking the perception of drop outschool youth in Paciran sub district Lamongan East Java.The scale arrangement technique applied to asserting self-efficacy, self esteem, life interest and role behavior is Likertscale by scale 1 (strongly disagree) until 7 (strongly agree).The result of validity and reliability examining conclude thatfor each indicator in examined variable points outsignificant or loading factor >0,5 (valid) (Appendix A).However, in reliability examining points out cronbach alpha>0,6 (reliable) (Appendix B). The technique of statisticsutilized in this study is paired sample t test used fordifferentiate self-efficacy, self esteem, life interest and rolebehavior before and after training.IV   E MPIRICAL RESULT AND DISCUSSION    A.   Sample Profile In relation to sample profile, Table 1 shows that the majorityrespondent characteristics were females (80,0%), agesbetween 24 to 25 years old (70,6%) and drop outdiploma/university 56,2.Table 1.Profile of Respondents (N = 73)  B.   The Analysis of Difference among Self-Efficacy,Self Esteem, Life Interest and Role Behavior beforeand after Training. The result of data processing of difference examining of self-efficacy, self esteem, life interest and role behaviorbefore and after training can be seen in Table 2. Table 2Comparison Group: Self Efficacy, Self Esteem ,  Life Interest and Role Behavior t test Pre and Postintervention Based on table 2 it can be seen that the examining result of paired sample t test for self-efficacy variable shows t test -2,132 by significance 0,036. It means that there is asignificant difference of self-efficacy before and aftertraining (Hypothesis 1 accepted). It defines that anindividual who involved in the training has different level of self-efficacy than who do not involved. An individual withhigh life skills will form a strong self-efficacy comparedwith an individual with low life skills.The examining result of paired sample t test for self-esteemvariable shows t test -2,660 by significance 0,010. It meansthat there is a significant difference of self-esteem beforeand after training (Hypothesis 2 accepted). It defines that anindividual who involved in the training has different self-
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