2012 Political and International Law Syllabus

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SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS POLITICAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAW I. The Constitution A. Definition, nature and concepts B. Parts C. Amendments and revisions D. Self-executing and non-self-executing provisions E. General provisions II. General Considerations A. National territory 1. Archipelagic doctrine B. State immunity C. Principles and policies D. Separation of powers E. Checks and balances F. Delegation of powers G. Forms of government III. Legislative Department A. Who may exercise l
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  Page   1   of    11   SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS P OLITICAL AND I NTERNATIONAL L  AW   I. The Constitution  A. Definition, nature and conceptsB. PartsC. Amendments and revisionsD. Self-executing and non-self-executing provisionsE. General provisions II. General Considerations  A. National territory1. Archipelagic doctrineB. State immunityC. Principles and policiesD. Separation of powersE. Checks and balancesF. Delegation of powersG. Forms of government III. Legislative Department  A. Who may exercise legislative power1. Congress2. Regional/Local legislative power3. People’s initiative on statutesa) Initiative and referendumB. Houses of Congress1. Senate  Page   2   of    11   2. House of Representativesa) District representatives and questions of apportionmentb) Party-list systemC. Legislative privileges, inhibitions and disqualificationsD. Quorum and voting majoritiesE. Discipline of membersF. Electoral tribunals and the commission on appointments1. Nature2. PowersG. Powers of Congress1. Legislativea) Legislative inquiries and the oversight functionsb) Bicameral conference committeec) Limitations on legislative power(i) Limitations on revenue, appropriations and tariff measures(ii) Presidential veto and Congressional override2. Non-legislativea) Informing function IV. Executive Department  A. Privileges, inhibitions and disqualifications1. Presidential immunity2. Presidential privilegeB. Powers1. Executive and administrative powers in general2. Power of appointmenta) In generalb) Commission on appointments confirmationc) Midnight appointmentsd) Power of removal3. Power of control and supervisiona) Doctrine of qualified political agencyb) Executive departments and officesc) Local government units4. Military powers5. Pardoning powera) Nature and limitationsb) Forms of executive clemency6. Diplomatic power  Page   3   of    11   7. Powers relative to appropriation measures8. Delegated powers9. Veto powers10. Residual powersC. Rules on Succession  V. Judicial Department  A. Concepts1. Judicial power2. Judicial reviewa) Operative fact doctrineb) Moot questionsc) Political question doctrineB. Safeguards of Judicial independenceC. Judicial restraintD. Appointments to the JudiciaryE. Supreme Court1. En banc and division cases2. Procedural rule-making3. Administrative supervision over lower courts  VI. Constitutional Commissions  A. Constitutional safeguards to ensure independence of commissionsB. Powers and functions of each commissionC. Prohibited offices and interestsD. Jurisdiction of each constitutional commissionE. Review of final orders, resolutions and decisions1. Rendered in the exercise of quasi-judicial functions2. Rendered in the exercise of administrative functions  VII. Bill of Rights  A. Fundamental powers of the state (police power, eminent domain, taxation)  Page   4   of    11   1. Concept and application2. Requisites for valid exercise3. Similarities and differences4. DelegationB. Private acts and the bill of rightsC. Due process1. Relativity of due process2. Procedural and substantive due process3. Constitutional and statutory due process4. Hierarchy of rights5. Judicial standards of review6. Void-for-vagueness doctrineD. Equal protection1. Concept2. Requisites for valid classification3. Standards of judicial reviewa) Rational Basis Testb) Strict Scrutiny Testc) Intermediate Scrutiny TestE. Searches and seizures1. Concept2. Warrant requirementa) Requisites3. Warrantless searches4. Warrantless arrests5. Administrative arrests6. Drug, alcohol and blood testsF. Privacy of communications and correspondence1. Private and public communications2. Intrusion, when allowed3. Writ of habeas dataG. Freedom of expression1. Concept and scopea) Prior restraint (censorship)b) Subsequent punishment2. Content-based and content-neutral regulationsa) Testsb) Applications3. Facial challenges and the overbreadth doctrine4. Tests5. State regulation of different types of mass media
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