4250_lec6_15

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4250_lec6_15
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  1 ã Outgrowths ã immovable (no membranous articulation) ã small –microtrichia; secreted sculpturing ã large –spines & horns ã movable (in a “socket”) ã medium-sized –setae (macrotrichia) ã large –spurs ã Ingrowths ã mostly immovable  –apophyses & apodemes; phragmata ã Glands ã C OLORS ã Pigmentcolors (from pigment molecules) ã Physicalcolors (iridescence) ã Sensory structures (to be considered later) Derivatives of the integument, continued ã Pigment Colors (vs. Physical Colors) ã Location: ã cuticle –melanin & sclerotin; fairly permanent ã epidermis –this & the rest are non-permanent ã fat body –metabolic byproducts & special synthesis ã gut (food) –ingestion of colorful stuff  ã blood –respiratory pigments ã Metabolic By-Products or Special Synthesis: ã Melanin(cuticle) –brown or black; sclerotization & excretion ã Biliverdin(fat body) –green, greenish-blue; pigment synthesis (purine derivatives) –yellow, white, red; RNA/DNA synthesis ã Ommochromes(tryptophan derivatives) –in eyes: red; also dark brown-violet; protein synthesis ã  Anthroquinones(cochineal & carmine red) –  predator protection ã Hemoglobins(haemolymph) –red; respiratory pigment ã From Foods: ã Carotenoids –yellow to orange; from leaves (e.g. xanthophylls) –ivory to yellow; from flowers (e.g. flavones) ã  Anthocyanins –scarlet, purple, blue; from flowers O 2  2 Pigment colors I:Metabolic by-products/synthesis Tanned exocuticle( melanin )in a nasutesoldier termite   Hemoglobin (bloodworm: Chironomidae) Ommochromes (Acrididae) Biliverdin (Chrysopidae)  Anthroquinones (cochineal bugs: carmine red)   Pterines (Nymphalidae) carminicacid --defense ã Pigment Colors (vs. Physical Colors) ã Location: ã cuticle –melanin & sclerotin; fairly permanent ã epidermis –this & the rest are non-permanent ã fat body –metabolic byproducts ã gut (food) –ingestion of colorful stuff  ã blood –respiratory pigments ã Metabolic By-Products or Special Synthesis: ã Melanin(cuticle) –brown or black; sclerotization & excretion ã Biliverdin(fat body) –green, greenish-blue; pigment synthesis (purine derivatives) –yellow, white, red; RNA/DNA synthesis ã Ommochromes(tryptophan derivatives) –in eyes: yellow   red; also dark brown-violet; protein synthesis ã  Anthroquinones(cochineal & carmine red) –  predator protection ã Hemoglobins(haemolymph) –red; respiratory pigment ã From Foods: ã Carotenoids –yellow to orange; from leaves (e.g. xanthophylls) –often condition-relatedin males (sexual selection) –ivory to yellow; from flowers (e.g. flavones) ã  Anthocyanins –scarlet, purple, blue; from flowers O 2  3 Pigment colors II:From food Carotenoids (Chrysomelidae)  Anthoxanthins :flavones  Anthocyanins (also flavonoids)ChrysomelidaeNymphalidaeBlueberry leafhopper (Cicadellidae) Physical Colors IA:Interference from a diffraction grating (reflection)  4 Physical colors IA:Interference from an ordered diffraction grating …dominated by Coleoptera(18 independent srcins) 625 tracks/mm= 1.6 microns Physical colors IB:Diffraction from unordered striations Pieris rapae (Papilionoidea: Pieridae)
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