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Advertising Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various media; including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radi
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  Advertising Advertising is a form of  communication used to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, thedesired result is drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, althoughpolitical and ideological advertising is also common. Advertising messages are usually paid forby sponsors and viewed via various media; including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages.Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in aneffort to associate certain qualities with the brand in the minds of  consumers.Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service includepolitical parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofitorganizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.  Modern advertising developed with the rise of  mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 2010, spending on advertising was estimated at more than $300 billion in the UnitedStates and $500 billion worldwide.Internationally, the largest ( big four ) advertising conglomerates are Interpublic, Omnicom,  Publicis,and WPP  Definition 1.The non-personal communication of information usually paid for & usually persuasive innature, about products (goods & services) or ideas by identified sponsor through variousmedia.(Arenes (1996) 2.Any paid form of non-personal communication about an organisation,product ,service, or idea from an identified sponsor.( Blech & Blech (1998) 3.Paid non -personalcommunication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade influence an audience.(Wells , burnett, & Moriaty (1998) 4. The element of the marketing communication mix that isnon personal paid for an identified sponsor, & disseminated through mass channels of communication to promote the adoption of oods, services, person or ideas.( bearden, Ingram, &Laforge (1998) 5.An informative or persuasive message carried by a non personal medium &paid for by an identified sponsor whose organisation or product is identified in some way. (Zikmund & d'amico (1999) 6. Impersonal , one way communication about a product ororganisation that is paid by marketer. ( Lamb, Hair & Mc. Daniel (2000) History   Edo period advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called Kinseitan  Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of  Pompeii and ancient Arabia. Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form,which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. History tells us that Out-of-home advertising and billboards are the oldest forms of advertising. As the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, and the general populace was unable to read, signs that today would say cobbler, miller, tailor or blacksmith would use an imageassociated with their trade such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horse shoe, a candleor even a bag of flour. Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of cartsand wagons and their proprietors used street callers(town criers)to announce their whereabouts for the convenience of the customers.As education became an apparent need and reading, as well as printing, developed advertisingexpanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weeklynewspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote booksand newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press;and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, falseadvertising and so-called quack advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content.As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the UnitedStates, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-orderadvertising.  In June 1836, French newspaper   La Presse  was the first to include paid advertising in its pages,allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roots of the modern day advertising agency in Philadelphia. In 1842 Palmer bought large amounts of space invarious newspapers at a discounted rate then resold the space at higher rates to advertisers. Theactual ad- the copy, layout, and artwork- was stilled prepared by the company wishing toadvertise; in effect, Palmer was a space broker. The situation changed in the late 19th centurywhen the advertising agency of N.W. Ayer & Son was founded. Ayer and Son offered to plan,create, and execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. By 1900 the advertisingagency had become the focal point of creative planning, and advertising was firmly establishedas a profession. Around the same time, in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of  his news agency, Havas to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. N. W. Ayer &Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayeropened in 1869, and was located in Philadelphia.An 1895 advertisement for a weight gain product.At the turn of the century, there were few career choices for women in business; however,advertising was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing donein their household,advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the creative process.In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman  –  for a soap product. Although tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured acouple with the message The skin you love to touch . [4]     Advertisements of hotels in Pichilemu, Chile from 1935. In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers andretailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed, manynon-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included:schools, clubs and civic groups. When the practice of  sponsoring programs was popularised, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. However, radiostation owners soon realised they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in smalltime allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts, rather thanselling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the   Encyclopædia Britannica  This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. A fierce battle wasfought between those seeking to commercialise the radio and people who argued that the radiospectrum should be considered a part of the commons  –  to be used only non-commercially andfor the public good. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC,srcinally a private company, the British Broadcasting Company,but incorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927. In Canada, advocates like Graham Spry were likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt a public funding model, creating the Canadian
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