ANALYSIS ON GALEN ON THE USEFULNESS OF THE PARTS OF THE BODY AND IBN AL-HAYTHAM'S BOOK OF OPTICS

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Medicine is a complex discipline, which takes years to learn for students who want to become doctors. But this was not always the case; nowadays we take for granted all those facts about the human body. Even if researchers continue to discover new things in medicine, the major part of medical knowledge is based on old works.
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  ANALYSIS ON GALEN ON THE USEFULNESS OF THE PARTS OF THE BODY AND IBN AL-HAYTHAM'SBOOK OF OPTICSStudentHisto!  Medi ine is # o$%&e dis i%&ine( )*i * t#+es !e#s to &e#n ,o students )*o )#nt to e o$e do tos. But t*is )#s not #&)#!s t*e #se/ no)#d#!s )e t#+e ,o 0#nted #&& t*ose ,# ts #out t*e *u$#n od!. E1en i, ese# *es on2nue to dis o1e ne) t*in0s in $edi ine( t*e $#3o %#t o, $edi #& +no)&ed0e is #sed on o&d )o+s.One o, t*ese o&d )o+s is 4Use,u&ness o, t*e P#ts o, t*e Bod!5 6Pei C*ei#s Moion #+# De Usu P#2u$7. T*e oo+ )#s )i8en ! G#&en( et)een 9:; #nd 9<; AD( in Ro$e. G#&en( on Ae&ius G#&enus in 9=> AD( )#s # Gee+ %*!si i#n( su0eon #nd %*i&oso%*e. He )#s t*e son o, # i * # *ite t( )*i * 0#1e *i$ t*e o%%otunit! to # ?uie t*e est edu #2on #1#i&#&e #t t*e 2$e. G#&en t#1e&ed t*e )o&d #nd s#) $u&2%&e $edi #& t*eoies o, t*e 2$e ein0 #%%&ied ! %*!si i#ns( e,oe se8&in0 in Ro$e. T*ee( *e e #$e #n # o$%&is*ed %*!si i#n *i$se&,( se1in0 se1e#& e$%eos.G#&en )ote $u&2%&e $edi ine )o+s( #sed on *is o)n e%eien es #nd t*e disse 2ons*e ondu ted on $on+e!s #nd %i0s. His )o+s )ee in@uen ed ! t*e %o%u&# t*eo! o, t*e ,ou *u$os( )*i * )#s intodu ed ! Gee+ %*!si i#n Hi%%o #tes #nd e$#ined %o%u&# ,o entuies.T*e 4Use,u&ness o, t*e P#ts o, t*e Bod!5 )#s )i8en #sed on t*e dis o1eies $#de duin0 t*e disse 2ons ondu ted ! G#&en. As *u$#n disse 2ons )ee %o*iited( *e used $on+e!s #nd %i0s( )*i * *e t*ou0*t to ese$&e t*e *u$#n od! #n#to$! t*e $ost  #n ide# s2&& used tod#!. T*e te#t! e$#ined t*e $ost e&i#&e #n#to$! oo+ un2& t*e 9: t*   entu!( )*en *u$#n disse 2ons e #$e %ossi&e in Euo%e.  G#&en )#nted to s*o) t*#t t*e *u$#n od! is t*e %odu t o, di1ine desi0n 9 #nd t*#t e# * od! %#t )#s s%e i #&&! desi0ned to %e,o$ one s%e i ,un 2on. T*ese ,un 2ons )ee #ssi0ned ! God( so t*ee )#s no od! %#t )*i * ou&d e de,e 21e. B#sed on t*is ,# t( )e #n #ssu$e G#&en )ote t*e te#t! ,o *is ,e&&o) s *o&#s( )*o )ee inteested in ot* e&i0ious $#8es #nd $edi ine. Es%e i#&&! sin e &ite# ! )#s #t*e &o) in t*e Ro$#n )o&d #t t*e 2$e( so # %e#s#nt )#s un&i+e&! to e #&e to e#d t*e te#t! no undest#nd it = .But not #&& $edi #& te#2es )ee )i8en ! %*!si i#ns. Anot*e use,u& )o+ on t*e ,un 2on o, t*e *u$#n od! e&on0s to A A& #&-#s#n in #&-#s#n in #&-H#!t*#. In #&-H#!t*#$ )#s on in >:; #nd *e )#s # s ien2st( $#t*e$#2 i#n( #stono$e #nd %*i&oso%*e. He )#s inteested in o%2 s( 1isu#& %e e%2on #nd #stono$!( #&on0 $#t*e$#2 s. In #&-H#!t*#$ &i1ed #t t*e out o, F#2$i C#&i%*#te in C#io #nd )#s t*e st s *o&# to onside t*#t# *!%ot*esis needs to e de$onst#ted ! so&id e1iden es  t*e #si on e%t o, $oden ese# *.In #&-H#!t*#$ is onsideed t*e ,#t*e o, o%2 s( t*#n+s to *is etensi1e )o+ in t*e e&d. He 0#t*eed #&& *is dis o1eies in t*e e&d o, o%2 s in t*e 4Boo+ o, O%2 s5( )i8en et)een 999 #nd 9=9. T*e te#t! *#s se1en 1o&u$es( )*i * )ee t#ns&#ted in L#2n ,o t*e Euo%e#n s *o&#s. T*e 4Boo+ o, O%2 s5 )#s #$on0 t*e $ost %o%u&# )o+s in t*e Midd&e A0es #nd it )#s t*e #se o, #&& t*e ot*e de1e&o%$ents in t*e e&d o, o%2 s( un2& t*e 9:;s.In t*e 4Boo+ o, O%2 s5 In #&-H#!t*#$ des ies t*e #n#to$! o, t*e e!e #nd t*e %in i%&es )*i * $#+e 1ision %ossi&e.9M#0#et T#&&$#d0e M#!. 9>: Intodu 2on to Galen on the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body  . Cone&& Uni1esit! Pess( It*# #( N. Y.= .J. H#is. 9>>  Ancient Literacy  ( %. 9  It is o1ious t*#t In #&-H#!t*#$'s te#t! )#s not dedi #ted to t*e $#sses( ut to ,e&&o) s *o&#s( )*o ou&d no) undest#nd *o) 1ision )#s %ossi&e. T*e )o+ is #sed on In #&-H#!t*#$'s dis o1eies( )*i * *e $#de usin0 t*e st #$e# os u#. T*e en2e 4Boo+ o, O%2 s5 )#s )i8en #e t*e #ut*o %o1ed e# * o, *is t*eoies( usin0 $#t*e$#2 s #nd &o0i ( #s)e&& #s ot*e dis i%&ines #1#i&#&e #t t*e 2$e.G#&en's te#t! on t*e od! %#ts #nd In #&-H#!t*#$'s te#t! on 1ision o$%&e$ent e# * ot*e. T*e 4Boo+ o, O%2 s5 #n e onsideed #n etension to G#&en's *#%te on t*e e!e( )*i * #n#&!ses t*e e!e ,o$ #n #n#to$i #& %es%e 21e. On t*e ot*e *#nd( In #&-H#!t*#$'s oo+ #n#&!ses t*e e!e ,o$ # ,un 2on#& %es%e 21e( det#i&in0 t*e %in i%&es o, 1ision. T*e t)o oo+s in@uen ed $oden $edi ine #nd *e&%ed ,utue 0ene#2ons de1e&o% t*ei +no)&ed0e on t*e *u$#n od!.
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