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  Designation: C 1472 – 00 Standard Guide for Calculating Movement and Other Effects When EstablishingSealant Joint Width 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation C 1472; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon ( e ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. 1. Scope 1.1 This guide provides information on performance factorssuch as movement, construction tolerances, and other effectsthat should be accounted for to properly establish sealant jointsize. It also provides procedures to assist in calculating anddetermining the required width of a sealant joint enabling it torespond properly to those movements and effects. Informationin this guide is primarily applicable to single- and multi-component, cold-applied joint sealants and secondarily toprecured sealant extrusions when used with properly prepared joint openings and substrate surfaces.1.2 Although primarily directed towards the understandingand design of sealant joints for walls for buildings and otherareas, the information contained herein is also applicable tosealant joints that occur in horizontal slabs and paving systemsas well as various sloped building surfaces.1.3 This guide does not describe the selection and propertiesof joint sealants  (1) , which are described by Guide C 1299, northeir use and installation, which is described by Guide C 1193.1.4 The values and calculations stated in SI units are to beregarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses andinch-pound units are provided for information only. SI units inthis guide are in conformance with IEEE/ASTM SI 10-1997.1.5 The Committee having jurisdiction for this guide is notaware of any comparable standards published by other orga-nizations.1.6  This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1  ASTM Standards: C 216 Standard Specification for Facing Brick (Solid Ma-sonry Units Made From Clay or Shale)C 717 Terminology of Building Seals and SealantsC 719 Standard Test Method for Adhesion and Cohesion of Elastomeric Joint Sealants Under Cyclic Movement(Hockman Cycle)C 794 Standard Test Method for Adhesion-in-Peel of Elas-tomeric Joint SealantsC 920 Specification for Elastomeric Joint SealantsC 1193 Standard Guide for Use of Building SealantsC 1299 Standard Guide for Use in Selection of Liquid-Applied sealants2.2  American Concrete Institute (ACI) and American Soci-ety of Civil Engineers (ASCE): Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI530-88/ASCE 5-88) and Specifications for MasonryStructures (ACI 530.1-88/ASCE 6-88)2.3  Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI): Manual for Quality Control for Plants and Production of Architectural Precast Concrete Products, MNL-177-772.4  American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE): Chapter 26, Climatic Design Information, Tables 1A, 1B,2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, ASHRAE 1997 Fundamentals Handbook 2.5  Brick Institute of America (BIA): Movement, Volume Changes, and Effect of Movement, PartI, Technical Notes on Brick Construction No. 18 Revised2.6  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.(IEEE) and ASTM: IEEE/ASTM SI 10-1997 Standard for Use of the Interna-tional System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System 3. Terminology 3.1  Definitions :3.1.1 Refer to Terminology C 717 for definitions of thefollowing terms used in this guide: band aid sealant joint, bondbreaker, bridge sealant joint, butt joint, butt sealant joint, creep,cure, cured, elongation, expansion joint, fillet sealant joint, joint, joint filler, modulus, primer, seal, sealant, sealant back-ing, silicone sealant, spalling, substrate3.2  Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 3.2.1  coeffıcient of linear thermal movement  —an increaseor decrease in unit length per unit change in material tempera-ture of a material or assembly of materials. 1 This standard is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C24 on BuildingSeals and Sealants and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C24.10 onSpecifications, Guides and Practices.Current edition approved June 10, 2000. Published July 2000. 1 Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.  3.2.2  coeffıcient of solar absorption —a factor describing thecapability of a material or assembly of materials to absorb apercentage of incident solar radiation.3.2.3  durability —ability of a sealant joint to perform itsrequired function over a period of time under the influence of the environment.3.2.4  durability limit  —point at which loss of performanceleads to the end of service life.3.2.5  heat capacity constant  —a factor describing the capa-bility of a material or assembly of materials to store heatgenerated by absorbed solar radiation.3.2.6  premature deterioration —failure to achieve predictedservice life.3.2.7  service life —actual period of time during which noexcessive expenditure is required for maintenance or repair of a sealant joint.3.3  Symbols: a  = Coefficient of linear thermal movement a  B  = Coefficient of linear thermal movement for brick  a  X   = Coefficient of linear thermal movement for a par-ticular material  A  = Coefficient of solar absorption  A  B  = Coefficient of solar absorption for brick   A  X   = Coefficient of solar absorption for a particularmaterial  B  = Sealant backing length C   = Compression C   B  = Construction tolerance for brick masonry C   X   = Construction tolerance for a particular material orsystem  E   = Extension  E   L   = Longitudinal extension  E  T   = Transverse extension  E   X   = Longitudinal or transverse movement for a particu-lar condition  H   = Heat capacity constant  H   X   = Heat capacity constant for a particular material  I   = Moisture-induced irreversible growth  L  = Unrestrained length or sealant joint spacing D  L  B  = Dimensional change due to brick thermal move-ment D  L C   = Dimensional change due to compression D  L  E   = Dimensional change due to extension D  L  I   = Dimensional change due to irreversible moisturemovement D  L  L   = Dimensional change due to longitudinal extension D  L P  = Dimensional change due to precast concrete ther-mal movement D  L  R  = Dimensional change due to reversible moisturemovement D  L T   = Dimensional change due to transverse extension D  L  X   = Dimensional change for a particular condition  R  = Moisture induced reversible growth S   = Sealant movement capacity T   A  = Hottest summer air temperature T   IS   = Maximum summer installation wall surface tem-perature T   IW   = Minimum winter installation wall surface tempera-ture T  S   = Hottest summer wall surface temperature T  W   = Coldest winter wall surface temperature D T   M   = Maximum expected temperature difference D T  S   = Summer installation temperature difference D T  W   = Winter installation temperature difference D T   X   = Temperature difference for a particular condition W   = Final designed sealant joint width W   M   = Sealant joint width required for movement W   R  = Sealant joint width at rest prior to movement 4. Significance and Use 4.1 Design professionals, for aesthetic reasons, have desiredto limit the spacing and width of sealant joints on exterior wallsand other locations of new buildings. Analysis of the perfor-mance factors and especially tolerances that affect a sealant joint is necessary to determine if a joint will have durabilityand be effective in maintaining a seal against the passage of airand water and not experience premature deterioration. If performance factors and tolerances are not understood andincluded in the design of a sealant joint, then the sealant mayreach its durability limit and failure is a distinct possibility.4.2 Sealant joint failure can result in increased buildingenergy usage due to air infiltration or exfiltration, waterinfiltration, and deterioration of building systems and materi-als. Infiltrating water can cause spalling of porous and friablebuilding materials such as concrete, brick, and stone; corrosionof ferrous metals; and decomposition of organic materials,among other effects. Personal injury can result from a fallincurred due to a wetted interior surface as a result of a failedsealant joint. Building indoor air quality can be affected due toorganic growth in concealed and damp areas. Deterioration isoften difficult and very costly to repair, with the cost of repairwork usually greatly exceeding the srcinal cost of the sealant joint work.4.3 This guide is applicable to sealants with an establishedmovement capacity, in particular elastomeric sealants that meetSpecification C 920 with a minimum movement capacity ratingof   6  12 1  ⁄  2  percent. In general, a sealant with less than  6  12 1  ⁄  2 percent movement capacity can be used with the joint widthsizing calculations; however, the width of a joint using such asealant will generally become too large to be practicallyconsidered and installed. It is also applicable to precuredsealant extrusions with an established movement capacity,although there presently is no ASTM specification for thesematerials.4.4 The intent of this guide is to describe some of theperformance factors and tolerances that are normally consid-ered in sealant joint design. Equations and sample calculationsare provided to assist the user of this guide in determining therequired width and depth for single and multi-component,liquid-applied sealants when installed in properly prepared joint openings. The user of this guide should be aware that thesingle largest factor contributing to non-performance of sealant joints that have been designed for movement is poor workman-ship. This results in improper installation of sealant and sealant joint components. The success of the methodology describedby this guide is predicted on achieving adequate workmanship. C 1472 – 00 2  4.5 Joints for new construction can be designed by therecommendations in this guide as well as joints that havereached the end of their service life and need routine mainte-nance or joints that require remedial work for a failure toperform. Guide C 1193 should also be consulted when design-ing sealant joints. Failure to install a sealant and its compo-nents following its guidelines can and frequently will result infailure of a joint design.4.6 Peer reviewed papers, published in various ASTMSpecial Technical Publications (STP), provide additional infor-mation and examples of sealant joint width calculations thatexpand on the information described in this guide  (2-5) . Forcases in which the state of the art is such that criteria for aparticular condition is not firmly established or there arenumerous variables that require consideration, a referencesection is provided for further consideration.4.7 To assist the user of this guide in locating specificinformation, a detailed listing of guide numbered sections andtheir headings is included in Appendix X1. 5. Performance Factors 5.1  General —Proper sealant joint design can not be ad-equately performed without a knowledge and understanding of factors that can affect sealant performance. The followingdescribes most of the commonly encountered performancefactors that are known to influence sealant joint design. Theseperformance factors can act individually or, as is mostly thecase, in various combinations depending on the characteristicsof a particular joint design.5.2  Material and System Anchorage —The type and locationof various wall anchors has an impact on the performance of asealant joint  (6) . Large precast concrete panels with fixed andmoving anchors, brick masonry support system deflectionbetween supports  (3) , and metal and glass curtain wall fixedand moving anchorages are examples of anchorage conditionsthat must be considered and evaluated when designing sealant joints for movement. Anchor types and their locations have aneffect on determining the effective length of wall material orsupport system deflection characteristics that need to beincluded when designing for sealant joint width.5.3  Thermal Movement  —Walls of buildings respond toambient temperature change, solar radiation, wetting anddrying effects from precipitation, and varying cloud cover byeither increasing or decreasing in volume and therefore inlinear dimension. The dimensional change of wall materialscauses a change in the width of a sealant joint opening,producing a movement in an installed sealant. Thermal move-ment is the predominate effect causing dimensional change.5.3.1 Thermal movement may need to be evaluated atdifferent stages in a building’s life; for example, expectedtemperature differentials may need to be considered for thebuilding when it is: 1) under construction, 2) unoccupied andunconditioned, and 3) occupied and conditioned. Each of thesestages will have different interior environmental conditions,and depending on the building enclosure material or systembeing analyzed for movement, one of those stages may producethe maximum expected thermal movement. The required jointopening width, depending on construction procedures andmaterial or wall system types, could be established during oneof those stages.5.3.2 Determining realistic material or wall surface tem-peratures to establish the expected degree of thermal move-ment can be challenging. The ASHRAE Fundamentals Hand-book, Chapter 26 Climatic Design Information, lists winter andsummer design dry bulb air temperatures for many cities.These listed values can be used to assist in calculating expectedsurface temperatures for use in joint width calculations. Forconvenience, dry bulb air temperatures for selected NorthAmerican locations have been included in Table 1.5.4  Thermal Movement Environmental Influences —The ef-fect of a sudden rain shower or the clouding over of the skymay also have to be considered  (6) . Both of these events cancause a wall material to change in temperature and thereforedimension. Moisture wetting a warm wall surface cools it andclouds preventing solar warming of the surface produce thesame effect. These effects, depending on the wall system ormaterial, its solar absorptivity, and color, can cause either atime lag and slow rate of movement in a sealant joint for aconcrete panel or masonry system, or an almost immediate andfairly rapid rate of movement for a sealant joint in a light-weight, highly insulated, metal and glass curtain wall.5.5  Coeffıcient of Linear Thermal Movement  —In addition tothe temperature extremes a wall material will experience, itscoefficient of linear thermal movement ( a ) must also bedetermined. Table 2 lists average coefficients of linear thermalmovement for some of the commonly used constructionmaterials. For most applications, it is acceptable to use thevalues for the materials listed in Table 2. For some materialsand applications, the relationship between temperature andlinear dimension, over the expected temperature exposurerange, may not be truly linear for the entire range. For asensitive application, it may be necessary to determine theactual linear dimensional response of a material for discretesegments of its service temperature range. This may result indifferent linear coefficients for those segments of the servicetemperature range. These values would then be used in thecalculations to determine sealant joint width. Additionally,absorbed moisture can also affect the thermal movementcoefficient of a porous material. The coefficient of thermalmovement of a saturated material can be as high as twice thatof the dry material. This effect is different from the moisture-induced movement effect described in 5.6. Lastly, for a wall orpanel system construction that is a composite of materials, anappropriate coefficient of linear thermal movement should bedetermined for the composite assembly.5.6  Moisture Induced Growth —Some materials respond tochanges in their water or water vapor content by increasing indimension when water content is high and decreasing indimension when water content is low. This effect can bereversible or irreversible  (7) . Materials susceptible to a revers-ible effect are generally porous and include wood, some naturalbuilding stones, concrete, face brick, and concrete block. Somematerials are susceptible to an irreversible change in dimensionwith the passage of time. For example, a fired clay product,such as a brick, will slowly increase in size, following its firing C 1472 – 00 3  in a kiln, as its moisture content increases while equilibratingwith the environment.5.6.1 Table 3 provides values (as a percent dimensionalchange) for moisture induced reversible growth (R) as well asirreversible growth (I) for various types of materials  (8) . Ingeneral, cement-based products decrease in dimension andfired clay products increase in dimension irreversibly as theyequilibrate with the environment. Reversible growth is basedon the likely extremes of in-service moisture content andirreversible growth on the period from material manufacture toits maturity. The use of steel reinforcement will usually lessenthe Table 3 concrete values. For clay masonry in Table 3, theACI 530.1-88/ASCE 6-88 and BIA Technical Notes on Brick Construction No. 18 recommended value of 0.03 can be usedfor I in lieu of the range of values, if appropriate. These listedvalues can be used to assist in calculating moisture growtheffects for use in joint width calculations. Section 7.5 illustratesuse of the data.5.6.2 For sealant joints, the dominant effect on a reversiblechange in joint width is usually due to temperature change of a material or system. The inclusion of reversible moisture-induced growth with thermal movement may not be a trulyadditive effect. Moisture content tends to decrease with a risein wall surface temperature and increase with a drop in wallsurface temperature, thereby producing thermal movement andmoisture-induced growth that are somewhat compensating butthat may not necessarily occur simultaneously. The net sealant joint movement due to thermal and moisture effects may bedifficult or impossible to determine, so some judgment must beused by the design professional when reversible moisturegrowth is considered (See 7.5.1).5.7  Live Load Movement  —Deflection caused by structure orfloor live loading should be considered for a horizontal sealant joint opening, as is done for example, in designing a joint formulti-story construction  (3) . A structural engineer can supplylive load deflection criteria for sealant joint design. TABLE 1 Dry Bulb Air Temperatures T W  and T A  for Selected North American Locations Temperatures indicated in degrees Celsius (°C) and degrees Fahrenheit (°F) Location Winter99.6 % ValueSummer0.4 % ValueLocation Winter99.6 % ValueSummer0.4 % Value°C °F °C °F °C °F °C °FBirmingham, AL −8 18 34 94 Albuquerque, NM −11 13 36 96Mobile, Al −3 26 34 94 Gallup, NM −18 −1 32 89Anchorage, AK −26 −14 22 71 Albany, NY −22 −7 32 90Fairbanks, AK −44 −47 27 81 New York, NY −11 13 33 92Flagstaff, AZ −17 1 29 85 Raleigh/Durham, NC −9 16 34 93Phoenix, AZ 1 34 43 110 Grand Forks, ND −29 −20 33 91Fayetteville, AR −14 6 35 95 Columbus, OH −17 1 32 90Little Rock, AR −9 16 36 97 Oklahoma City, OK −13 9 37 99Los Angeles, CA 6 43 29 85 Portland, OR −6 22 32 90San Francisco, CA 3 37 28 83 Harrisburg, PA −13 9 33 92Denver, CO −19 −3 34 93 Providence, RI −15 5 32 89Hartford, CT −17 2 33 91 Charleston, SC −4 25 34 94Wilmington, DE −12 10 33 91 Rapid City, SD −24 −11 35 95Miami, FL 8 46 33 91 Nashville, TN −12 10 34 94Tallahassee, FL −4 25 35 95 Dallas/Fort Worth, TX −8 17 38 100Atlanta, GA −8 18 34 93 Houston, TX −2 29 34 94Honolulu, HI 16 61 32 89 Salt Lake City, UT −14 6 36 96Boise, ID −17 2 36 96 Burlington, VT −24 −11 31 87Idaho Falls, ID −24 −12 33 92 Richmond, VA −10 14 34 94Chicago, IL −21 −6 33 91 Seattle, WA −5 23 29 85Rockford, IL −23 −10 33 91 Spokane, WA −17 1 33 92Indianapolis, IN −19 −3 33 91 Huntington, WV −14 6 33 91Des Moines, IA −23 −9 34 93 Madison, WI −24 −11 32 90Sioux City, IA −24 −11 34 94 Wausau, WI −26 −15 31 88Wichita, KS −17 2 38 100 Casper, WY −25 −13 33 92Louisville, KY −14 6 34 93 Cheyenne, WY −22 −7 31 87New Orleans, LA −1 30 34 93Caribou, ME −26 −14 29 85 Edmonton, Alberta −33 −28 28 82Portland, ME −19 −3 30 86 Vancouver, BC −8 18 24 76Baltimore, MD −12 11 34 93 Winnipeg, Manitoba −33 −27 31 87Boston, MA −14 7 33 91 Saint John, NB −23 −9 26 78Detroit, MI −18 0 32 90 Gander, NF −20 −4 26 79Marquette, MI −25 −13 29 85 Chesterfield, NWT −37 −35 19 66International Falls, MN −34 −29 30 86 Halifax, NS −19 −2 27 80Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN −27 −16 33 91 Toronto, Ontario −20 −4 31 87Jackson, MS −6 21 35 95 Charlottetown, PEI −21 −6 26 79Kansas City, MO −18 −1 36 96 Montreal, Quebec −24 −12 29 85Billings, MT −25 −13 34 93 Regina, Saskatchewan −34 −29 32 89Omaha, NE −22 −7 35 95 Whitehorse, YT −37 −34 25 77Ely, NV −21 −6 32 89Las Vegas, NV −3 27 42 108 Acapulco 20 68 33 92Concord, NH −22 −8 32 90 Mexico City 4 39 29 84Newark, NJ −12 10 34 93 Veracruz 14 57 34 94Table 1 data has been extracted from the 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, Chapter 26, Tables 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B. Section 7.2 illustrates use ofthe data. C 1472 – 00 4
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