Ch12 earthquakesandvolcanoessection1

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1. The Changing Earth 2. Chapter Twelve: Earthquakes ã 12.1 Earthquakes ã 12.2 Volcanoes 3. Investigation 12A Earthquakesã What conditions affect the timing,…
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  • 1. The Changing Earth
  • 2. Chapter Twelve: Earthquakes • 12.1 Earthquakes • 12.2 Volcanoes
  • 3. Investigation 12A Earthquakes• What conditions affect the timing, duration, and intensity of an earthquake?
  • 4. 12.1 What is an earthquake like?• The second longest ever recorded earthquake occurred in 1964 in Alaska and lasted for four minutes.• During an earthquake, strong shaking makes the ground move up and down and back and forth.
  • 5. 12.1 What is an earthquake like? • Foreshocks are small bursts of shaking that may precede a large earthquake. • Aftershocks are small tremors that follow an earthquake, lasting for hours or even days after the earthquake.
  • 6. 12.1 What causes earthquake?• An earthquake is the movement of Earth’s crust resulting from the release of built- up potential energy between two stuck lithospheric plates.
  • 7. 12.1 What causes earthquakes• The point below the surface where the rock breaks is called the earthquake focus.
  • 8. 12.1 What causes earthquakes?• As soon as the rock breaks, there is movement along the broken surface causing a split in the surface called a fault.
  • 9. 12.1 What causes earthquakes?• The seismic waves from an earthquake are usually strongest at the epicenter, the point on the surface right above the focus.
  • 10. 12.1 Stick-slip motion• An earthquake is a form of stick-slip motion.• Stick-slip motion can be compared to a stuck door.
  • 11. 12.1 Stick-slip motion • Three conditions are needed for stick- slip motion: 1. Two objects that are touching each other where at least one of the objects can move. 2. A force, or forces, that will cause the movement. 3. Friction strong enough to temporarily keep the movement from starting.Use the stick-slip door model to identify these conditions.
  • 12. 12.1 Friction• Friction is a resistance to slip that occurs when two objects rub against each other.
  • 13. 12.1 Lithospheric plates have many sections• A moving line of grocery carts is a better example of a moving lithospheric plate.• Although a plate may be moving as a single unit, its boundaries act like they were made of many small sections like the line of carts.
  • 14. 12.1 Lithospheric plates have many sections • A lithospheric plate may be thousands of km. across. • It takes a long time for movement on one end of the plate to affect a section further away.
  • 15. 12.1 When do earthquakes happen?• The release of built-up potential energy causes earthquakes.• An earthquake is a stress reliever for a lithospheric plate.• Once a quake occurs, potential energy builds up again.
  • 16. 12.1 Seismic waves• Seismic waves are recorded and measured by an instrument called a seismograph.• Seismic waves inside Earth are called body waves.• The two main types of body waves are P- waves and S-waves.
  • 17. 12.1 Seismic waves • After an earthquake occurs, the first seismic waves recorded will be P- waves. • S-waves are recorded next, followed by the surface waves.
  • 18. 12.1 Seismic waves• In a quarter-mile race, the track is so short that fast and slow cars are often just fractions of a second apart.• In a long race, like the Indianapolis 500, the • The time difference cars might be minutes between slow and fast apart. cars is related to the length of the race track.
  • 19. 12.1 Seismic waves • Seismic waves radiate from the focus after the earthquake. • Three seismic stations can accurately determine the times of body wave arrival. • The larger the difference in arrival time, the farther the epicenter is from the station.
  • 20. 12.1 Seismic mystery • Garrett Euler was puzzled because earthquake-like signals were arriving at all of his 32 seismic stations at the same time. • Euler was able to show that each burst of seismic signals matched the time each Cameroonian soccer goal occurred!
  • 21. 12.1 Measuring seismic waves• The Richter scale ranks earthquakes according to their magnitude of the seismic waves recorded on a seismograph.
  • 22. 12.1 Measuring earthquake damage • The Modified Mercalli scale has 12 descriptive categories. • Each category is a rating of the damage experienced by buildings, the ground, and people.
  • 23. 12.1 Earthquakes and plate boundaries • Earthquakes commonly occur at the boundaries of lithospheric plates. • This is because plate boundaries tend to be zones of seismic activity.
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