Chapter 1 Introduction to Physics Student Copy

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Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS 1.1 Understanding Physics PHYSICS Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy Study of the natural phenomena and the properties of matter. Matter states Energy forms Heat Energy Light Energy Wave Energy Electrical Energy Solid Liquid Gas Nuclear Energy Chemical Energy Properties of Matter Relationship with energy Relationship with matter Properties of Energy in the fields of Mechanics Heat Wave
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  Physics Module Form 4Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics CHAPTER 1 :   INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS1.1Understanding Physics 1   Mechanical Energy   PHYSICS Study of the natural phenomena and theroerties of matter.SolidLiquidGas Mechanical EnergyHeat EnergyLight EnergyWave Energy Electrical Energy   Nuclear EnergyChemical Energy Relationshipwithmatter Properties of Ener RelationshipwithenergyProperties of Matter formsstatesMatterEnergyMechanics Propertiesof matter  HeatLightWavein the fields of Electricity &ElectromagnetismAtomic Physicsuclear Electronics  Physics Module Form 4Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics 1.2PHYSICAL QUANTITIESBase quantity 1A physical quantity is ……………………………………………………………………..2 Examples of scientific instruments :………………………………………………………3A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physicalquantities.4 Study the following picture and list the physical quantities that can be measured.5List of 5 basic physical quantities and their units.Base quantitySymbolS.I. UnitSymbol for S.I. UnitLengthMassTimeCurrentTemperature6Two quantities that have also identified as basic quantity. There are :i) …………………………..unit ………….. ii) ………………………. unit …………….. Standard Form   The list of physical quantities :1. ……………………………………….2. ……………………………………….3. ……………………………………….4. ……………………………………….5. ……………………………………….6. ……………………………………….7. ……………………………………….8. ………………………………………. batteryattery 2  Physics Module Form 4Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics 1Standard form = A x 10 n , 1 < A < 10 and n = integer 2Standard form is used to …………………………………………………………………...3Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following quantitiesin standard form : a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =………………………………………………….  b. Mass of an electron = 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg =………...c.Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m = ……………………………………………………… b.Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = …………………………………………...c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = …………………………………………….. Prefixes 1.Prefixes are usually used to ………………………………………………………………...2.It will be written ……………………………………………………………………………3.The list of prefixes :4.Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large andsmall values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write thequantities in standard prefixes:a.Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = …………………………………………. b.Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m = ………………………………………………c.Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m = ………………………d.Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg = ……………………… Derived quantities   Tera (T)Giga (G)Mega (M)kilo (k)mili (m)micro (  µ  )nano (n)pico (p)10 12 10 9 10 6 10 3 10 0 10 -3 10 -6 10 -9 10 -12 Hekto (ha)Deka (da)desi (d)centi (s) 10 2 10 1 10 -1 10 -2 Eg :1 Tm = …………………………………….3.6 mA = …………………………………….How to change the unit ;Eg :1. Mega to nano2. Tera to micro3.piko to Mega 3  Physics Module Form 4Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics 1A derived quantity is …….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities . DerivedquantityFormulaDerived unitName of derived unit area area = length x widthm x m = m 2  –  volume volume = length x width x heightm x m x m = m 3  –  density volumemassensityd  =  –  velocity timent displaceme elocityv =  –  momentum momentum = mass x velocitykg m s -1  –  Acceleration timevelocityinchangeonaccelerati =  –  Force force = mass x accelerationkg m s -2  Newton (N)  pressure area force  pressure = weight weight = mass x gravitational acceleration work  work = force x displacement  power  timework  power  = kinetic energy 2 velocitymass K.E  ××= 21  potentialenergy P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height  Kg ms -2    Joule (J) chargecharge = current x time  Ampere second (As) Coulomb (C) voltage chargework voltage =  J C  -1 Volt (v) resistance current voltageresistance = v A -1 Ohm (Ω)  Note that the physical quantities such as width, thickness, height, distance, displacement, perimeter, radius and diameter are equivalent to length. 1.3SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES 4
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