Chapter 28.3 (2)

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Chapter 28.3 53. Dawes Plan (1924)- The reparations commission appointed an international committee of financial experts headed by American banker Charles D. Dawes to re-examine reparations from a broad perspective. The resulting Dawes Plan (1924) was accepted by France, Germany, and Britain. Germany's yearly reparations were reduced and depended on the level of German economic prosperity. This would help Germany in its recovery and help pay France and Britain which would then be able to pay Ame
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  Chapter 28.3 53. Dawes Plan (1924)- The reparations commission appointed an international committee of financial experts headed by American banker Charles D. Dawes to re-examine reparations from abroad perspective. The resulting Dawes Plan (1924) was accepted by France, Germany, andBritain. Germany's yearly reparations were reduced and depended on the level of Germaneconomic prosperity. This would help Germany in its recovery and help pay France and Britainwhich would then be able to pay America the large sums of money that they owed America.54. Young Plan (1929)-55. Locarno Treaties: What they provided- In 1925 the leaders of Europe signed a number of agreements at Locarno, Switzerland. Germany and France solemnly pledged to accept theircommon border, and both Britain and Italy agreed to fight either France or Germany if oneinvaded the other. Stresemann also agreed to settle boundary disputes with Poland andCzechoslovakia by peaceful means, and France promised those countries military aid if Germanyattacked them.56. Kellogg-Briand Pact- In 1928 15 countries signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, initiated byFrench prime minister Aristide Briand and the US secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg. Thismultinational pact condemned and renounced the war as an instrument of national policy. Thesigning states agreed to settle international disputes peacefully.57. Mein Kampf- Hitler wanted to seize control of the government, but it was poorly organizedand easily crushed, and Hitler was sent to Prison. In prison he outlined his theories and programin his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle). Throughout the 1920s, Hitler's national socialist partyattracted support only from a new financial anti-Semites, ultranationalists, and disgruntled ex-servicemen.58. American Jazz in Paris Image- This woodcut from 1928 French book on cafes and nightclubssuggests how black musicians took Europe by storm, although the blacks were representedstereotypically. On French critic concluded that American blacks had attained a pre-eminent place in music since the war, for they had impressed the entire world with their vibrating ormelancholy rhythms. 59. Challenges to Democracy in Germany- Members of Germany's recently formed Communistparty were active and noise on the left. The Communists, directed from Moscow, reserved theirgreatest hatred and sharpest barbs for their cousins the Social Democrats, who they endlesslyaccused of betraying the revolution. The working classes were divided politically, but a majoritysupported the non-revolutionary but socialist Social Democrats.  60. Challenges to Democracy in France- Very similar to the problem in Germany. Communistsand Socialists battled for the support of the workers. After 1924 the democratically electedgovernment rested mainly in the hands of coalitions of moderates, and business interests werewell represented.61. Rise of the labor party in Great Britain- Relative social harmony was accompanied by therise of the Labour party as a determined champion of the working classes and of greater socialequality. The Labour party replaced the Liberal party as the main opposition to the conservatives.In 1924 and 1929, the Labour party under Ramsay MacDonald (1866-1937) governed thecountry with the support of the smaller Liberal party. Yet Labour moved toward socialismgradually and democratically, so that the middle classes were not overly frightened as theworking classes won new benefits.62. Gertrude Stein- Writer Gertrude Stein (1874-1946), a leader of the large colony of Americanexpatriates living in Paris, later recalled, Paris was where the 20th century was. 63. The Great Depression- Depressions weren't unusual and new. What was Great about this onewas its severity and duration. It struck the entire world with ever greater intensity from 1929-1933, and recovery was uneven and slow. Only with the Second World War did the depressiondisappear in much of the world. The depression shattered the fragile optimism of political leadersin the late 1920s. Mass unemployment and failing farms made insecurity a reality for millions of ordinary people.64. why the Depression lasted so long (2 reasons)- Though economic activity was alreadydeclining moderately in many countries by early 1929, the crash of the stock market in theUnited States in October of that year triggered the collapse into the Great Depression. TheAmerican economy had prospered in the late 1920s, but there were large inequalities in income and a serious imbalance between “real” investment and stock market speculation.  65. mass unemploymentAlong with economic effects, mass unemployment posed a great social problem that merenumbers cannot adequately express. Millions of people lost their spirit and dignity in anapparently hopeless search for work. Homes and ways of life were disrupted in millions of personal tragedies. Young people postponed marriages they could not afford, and birthrates fellsharply. There was an increase in suicide and mental illness. Poverty or the threat of povertybecame a grinding reality.66. New DealFull of charm and confidence in 1932, he won a landslide electoral victory with grand but vague  promises of a “New Deal for    the forgotten man.”Roosevelt’s basic goal was to reform capitalism in order to preserve it. In his words, “A frank  examination of the profit system in the spring of 1933 showed it to be in collapse; but  substantially everybody in the United States, in public office and out of public office, from the very rich to the very poor, was as determined as was my Administration to save it.”  67. Scandinavian SocialismScandinavian socialism grew out of a strong tradition of cooperative community action. Evenbefore 1900, Scandinavian agricultural cooperatives had shown how individual peasant families could join together for everyone’s benefit. Labor leaders and capitalists were also inclined to work together.68. Oslo Breakfast Image69. Macdonald in BritainIn 1924 and 1929, the Labour party under Ramsay MacDonald (1866  —  1937) governed thecountry with the support of the smaller Liberal party. Yet Labour moved toward socialismgradually and democratically, so that the middle classes were not overly frightened as theworking classes won new benefits.70. France during the DepressionBecause France was relatively less industrialized and more isolated from the world economy, theGreat Depression came late. But once the depression hit France, it stayed and stayed. Declinewas steady until 1935, and a short-lived recovery never brought production or employment back up to pre-depression levels. Economic stagnation both reflected and heightened an ongoingpolitical crisis. There was no stability in government.71. Leon Blum and the Popular Front In the next few months, Blum’s Popular Front government made the first and only real attempt todeal with the social and economic problems of the 1930s in France. Inspired by Roosevelt’s New Deal, the Popular Front encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reform, complete with paid vacations and a forty-hour workweek. Popular with workersand the lower middle class, these measures were quickly sabotaged by rapid inflation and cries of revolution from fascists and frightened conservatives.72. Spanish Civil WarInspired by the Spanish civil war, the painting commemorates the bombing of the ancientSpanish town of Guernica by fascist planes, an attack that took the lives of a thousand people  —  one out of every eight inhabitants  —  in a single night of terror. Combining the free distortion of expressionism, the 
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