Chicken Egg Yolk

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Immunoprophylactic effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (Ig Y) against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in piglets. Kweon CH, Kwon BJ, Woo SR, Kim JM, Woo GH, Son DH, Hur W, Lee YS J Vet Med Sci 2000 Sep 62:961-4 Abstract Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the causative agent of neonatal diarrhea in piglets, which causes high mortality rates. In this study, the immunoprophylactic effects of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (Ig Y) against PEDV were investigated in neonatal pigs.
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  Immunoprophylactic effect of chicken eggyolk immunoglobulin (Ig Y) against porcineepidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in piglets. Kweon CH, Kwon BJ, Woo SR, Kim JM, Woo GH, Son DH, Hur W, Lee YSJ Vet Med Sci 2000 Sep 62:961-4   Abstract  Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the causative agent of neonatal diarrhea in piglets, whichcauses high mortality rates. In this study, the immunoprophylactic effects of chicken egg yolkimmunoglobulin (Ig Y) against PEDV were investigated in neonatal pigs. Ig Y was found to reduce themortality in piglets after challenge exposures. The field application of Ig Y also revealed significantdifferences in survival rates of piglets given Ig Y, as compared with placebo or control. The results in thisstudy indicated that Ig Y against PEDV could be an alternative way of supplementing prophylacticmeasures like colostral antibodies from sows.   RUSSIAN VETERINARY CONGRESSSection of the problems of the infectiouspathology of pigs EPIZOOTIC DIARRHEA OF THE PIGS [V].[A].[SERGEEV] , professor, the doctor of biological sciences, [O].[V].[SERGEEV], thecandidate of biological sciences, NII (Scientific Research Institute) the virusologists [im]. Of the[d].[I].[Ivanovskogo]In 1971 in England among the feeder pigs and the nursing suckling-pigs they observed sharpoutbreaks of diarrhea unknown to that. The clinical manifestations of disease were similar totransmissible gastroenteritis ([TGS]) besides that important difference, that in nursing suckling-pigs did not observe vomiting [2, 38]. Virus [TGS] and other known enteropathogenic agentswere excluded. The analogous disease, which was being observed in other European Countries,was called name epizootic virus diarrhea (EVD).In 1978 was established the connection of the observed flashes with crown- such virus [6, 40].Experimental infection by prototype strain CV777, called diarrhea in suckling-pigs and pigsduring fattening [9]. Pathogen of disease was called name virus of epizootic diarrhea of pigs(PEDV) [39].  Etiology Virus emf on the basis of antigenic and genetic criteria carries to the group 1 kinds Of [s]oronavirus of the family Of [s]oronaviridae together with the virus [TGS], the corona virusesof cats, dogs and man of 229[E]. The genome of prototype strain [S]V777 has a size of 28033nucleotides [1, 17, 30, 50]. Similar to other corona viruses, virus emf contains 3 proteins: the[neglikolizirovannyy] protein N (57-58 cd), which together with the genomic RNA forms thenucleocapsid of virus; transmembrane glycoprotein M (27-32 cd) and [peplomernyy]glycoprotein S (180-200 cd) [of 11; 16; 50].There is no proof of existence of more than one serotype of virus emf.Prototype strain CV777 on the nucleotide sequence of the gene N of [gomologichen] to Koreanand Japanese isolates is more than to 90% [31,37,53].The particles of virus emf on the morphology and the morphogenesis possess all characteristicsof the family Of coronaviridae [6, 40]. Mean diameter 130 nm (95-190 nm). Club-shaped[peplomery] (shafts) have a length 18-23 nm and are arranged radially from the core, formingcrown. Assembling particles occurs [putem] of budding through the internal cytoplasmicmembranes [13, 48].Virus emf is sensitive to ether and chloroform. Its density in the gradient of saccharose is equalto 1,18 [g]/[sm]3. The virus, adapted to the culture of cells, loses infectiousness with >60°[S]during 30 min., but preserves stability with 50°[S]. [pri] 4°[S] virus it is stable with [rN] 4,0-9,0,with 37°[S] it is stable with [rN] 6,5-7,5. Virus emf does not possess the hemagglutinatingactivity [36]. Cultivation. [Attenuatsiya] Many types of the cultures of cells were unsuccessfully used for the cultivation of virus emf.Subsequently it was established that the culture of the cells Of vero (kidney of green marmoset)supports the series multiplication of virus emf. In the culture of the cells Of vero the virus wasisolated from the small intestine both naturally sick and experimentally infected suckling-pigs.The field isolates of virus were passed to 100 series passages to the cells Of vero. The supportingmedium in the period of the multiplication of virus contained trypsin in the concentration 1-2g/ml. The multiplication of virus is accompanied by the expressed cytopathic effect ([TSPE]),which is evinced by the vacuolization of cells and shaping of syncytium (symplasts, whichcontain to 100 nuclei). With the isolation of virus from the feces of the sick suckling-pigs severalblind passages were required to conduct before the appearance [TSPE] in the cells Of vero [19,32, 33, 36, 43, 47].During the series passivation the virus (105,0 [TTsD]50/[ml]) was introduced into the culture of the cells 48 hours after sowing of the cells, when monolayer still completely was not formed.After the development of expressed [TSPE], virus separated from the cells of [putem] of repeated freezing- thawing [19, 23]. The caption of virus reached peak (about 105,5 [BOE]/[ml])15 hours after inoculation [19, 36]. Isolate KPEDV-9 on 90 passages reached the caption of   106,5 [TTsD]50/[ml] [33], by a isolate DR13 on 55 passage reached the level of 106,0[TTsD]50/[ml] and to 100 passages were accumulated in the limits 106,5 - 107,0 [TTsD]50/[ml][47].Virus emf, prolongedly adapted to the cells Vero successfully multiplied in the cultures of thecells both of the pig and [nesvinogo] srcin: MA 104, CPK and ESK in the presence of trypsin[32]. In the lines of the cells of pig KSEK-6 and IBRS-2 the isolate P -5v in series multipliedeven without the addition of trypsin [23], although the role of trypsin in an increase in the levelof the reproduction of virus emf was shown experimentally [by 7].There is information about the isolation of virus emf in the cultures of the cells of the bladderand kidney of pig, grown in the screw dies, covered with collagen, in the presence of trypsin inthe supporting medium [43]. Epizootiology In 1982 - 1990 of antibody to [VEDS] they were discovered in pigs in many countries of Europeand Asia. Communications about the presence of virus emf in North and South America areabsent [41]. In Europe the flashes emf recorded rarely, whereas in Asia frequently occur massflashes emf, which are accompanied by the high mortality of suckling-pigs. On the masscharacter, the sharpness and the severity of flow they cannot be clinically distinguished of thetypical sharp flashes [TGS].Fecal- oral way is the main thing, if not only, [putem] of the transfer of virus emf. The sharpflashes of infection in the receptive economies frequently occur through 4-5 days after sale orpurchases of pigs. Virus emf does not differ from virus [TGS] with respect to the methods of transfer, but it seems that the first more easily causes persistent infection in the economy afterthe end of the sharp flash [of 41]. Clinical signs Watery diarrhea is main and frequently only clinical sign emf. Flashes can considerably vary onthe morbidity and the lethality. The pigs of all ages fall ill at some farms, and morbidityapproaches 100%. Emf is very similar to [TGS] with exception of slower propagation andsomewhat the lower mortality of the [novorozhdennykh] suckling-pigs. Suckling-pigs at the ageto 1 week can perish from the dehydration after 3-4- day diarrhea. The average mortality of suckling-pigs usually composes 50%, but it can reach 100%. Adult pigs get better approximatelyin 1 week. After sharp flash diarrhea in suckling-pigs can be observed during 2-3 weeks afterremoval. In recent years typical sharp flashes with the high mortality of the [novorozhdennykh]suckling-pigs in Europe observe rarely, but they frequently occur in Korea [5] and Japan [48].All feeder pigs fall ill with the development of diarrhea within a week with the sharp flash emf inthe economy. In animals they observe the partial loss of appetite, depression and watery diarrhea.Toward the end feeder period emf frequently flows more heavily than [TGS]. Animals manifestlarge sickliness in the region of stomach and, as a rule, they get better in 7-10 days. Mortalitycomposed 1-3%, usually at the early stage of diarrhea or even before the manifestation of   diarrhea. With [nekropsii] in such animals they reveal the sharp necrosis of spinal musculature.The highest mortality is observed in the pigs, sensitive to the stress. It is extended more slowly incomparison with [TGS] emf. The propagation of virus of one pigsty in another can engage 4-6weeks, some pigsties, which do not have contact between themselves, can remain free from theinfection. Pathogenesis Virus multiplied in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of [vorsinok] of thin and colons, whichwas shown by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The infected epithelial cellsrevealed after 12-18 hours, and they observed their maximum quantity 24-36 hours afterinfection. The replication of virus in the small intestine led to the destruction of epithelial cellsand the shortening of [vorsinok]. The ratio of the height of [vorsinok] to the depth of cryptsdecreases to 3:1 in comparison with standard 7: 1. degeneration of the infected cells of theepithelium of colon did not observe [41].The three-day suckling-pigs, [zarazhennye] with the orally prototype strain [S]V777 of virusemf, fell ill 22-36 hours after inoculation. Changes in the small intestine in suckling-pigs withemf are similar to changes with [TGS]. However, the replication of virus and the development of infectious process with emf flow more slowly than with [TGS] [9,10].The replication of virus emf y of suckling-pigs was discovered only in the intestinal tract.Shibata et al [43] showed that the pigs at the age of 2 days - 12 weeks, [zarazhennye] by fieldvirus emf, manifested stability to the infection depending on age. Only 2-7- day suckling-pigsperished.The clinical signs emf, described in Korea and Japan, are identical to those, which observed inEurope, with exception of the fact that there are no proofs of the replication of the Asian strainsof virus in the colon [26, 48] and there were no cases of sudden death of feeder animals. [Patanatomicheskie] changes are expressed by the damage only of small intestine, which isfilled up and are extended by yellow liquid [14, 15, 48]. Vacuolization and desquamation of theenterocytes of [vorsinok] of small intestine begin 24 hours after infection and coincide since thebeginning of diarrhea. The infected fibers rapidly are shortened and their enzymatic activitysharply is reduced. Morphological changes in [vorsinok] are confirmed by scanning [EM] [12],which showed the great similarity of changes with emf and [TGS]. Histopathological changes inthe colon were not revealed.The forming of virions in essence occurs inside the cells and completes [putem] of buddingthrough the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum (EPR) [13, 21]. In the colon only somechanges in the enterocytes observed. They contained virus particles, but they did not undergodesquamation. Diagnosis on emf it is not possible to place only on the basis clinical signs. Sharp flashes emf inthe pigs of all ages cannot be clinically distinguished of the same with [TGS]. Etiologicaldiagnosis can be established on the basis of the detection of virus emf, either its antigen or
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