Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles With Diesel Engines

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Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Diesel Engines Karin Jonasson Doctoral Dissertation in Industrial Electrical Engineering Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation ii Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA) Lund University Box 118 S-221 00 LUND SWEDEN ISBN 91-88934-38-1 CODEN:LUTEDX/(TEIE-1046)/1-136/(2005) © 2005, Karin Jonasson Printed in Sweden by Media-Tryck, Lund University Lund 2005 iii Abstract This th
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  Control of Hybrid ElectricVehicles with Diesel Engines Karin Jonasson Doctoral Dissertation in Industrial Electrical EngineeringDepartment of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation    ii Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA)Lund UniversityBox 118S-221 00 LUNDSWEDENISBN 91-88934-38-1CODEN:LUTEDX/(TEIE-1046)/1-136/(2005)© 2005, Karin JonassonPrinted in Sweden by Media-Tryck, Lund UniversityLund 2005    iii Abstract This thesis is an approach to improve electric hybrid vehicles with respectto fuel consumption and to fulfil the future intended NO X emissionregulations. It is based upon the conclusions made in the licentiate thesis  Analysing Hybrid Drive System Topologies (Jonasson, 2002).The study in this thesis is restricted to a parallel hybrid vehicle equippedwith a diesel engine, two electric machines and electrical energy storageand a model thereof is presented in the thesis.The choice to focus on the diesel engine is related to the high efficiency of this engine that also is the reason for the in later years increased market for diesel engines in conventional vehicles. Since one of the disadvantages,related to the diesel engine, are the nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions,efforts is concentrated on reducing them, by means of the advantages of hybridisation.The reference vehicle in the simulations presented in this thesis is a ToyotaPrius, an electric hybrid passenger car, which is available on the markettoday. As input for the combustion engine model, engine data from a dieselengine considered as state of the art 2004, has been used. The engine data isscaled to correspond to the engine size used in the Prius. It should bementioned that the engine in the Toyota Prius is run on petrol.There are many possible parameters in the simulation model, which areadjustable; vehicle chassis parameters, engine, electric machine(s) and battery size and types, losses models, charging strategies and driver  behaviour etc. A number of key parameters have been selected in thisstudy: control strategy, NO X control by means of EGR (exhaust gasrecirculation) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction), gear ratios andgearshift strategies and finally cylinder deactivation. The accuracy of the    iv simulation model is ratified by means of measured data on the engine usedin the simulation.Fuel consumption and NO X are determined by using look-up-tables basedon measured data. The engine temperature, needed to determine the NO X  conversion by means of SCR, is also received from a look-up-table.The simulation model is evaluated in the driving cycle ECE+EUDC.The results presented are chosen to illustrate the impact each individual parameter has on the behaviour of the hybrid vehicle, the fuel consumptionand the emissions.The results from the simulations show that it is possible to pass theexpected limit of the future Euro 5 NO X regulations, if NO X emissiontreatment with EGR and SCR is implemented. The price to pay for thisaction is to sacrifice some of the fuel savings that the hybridization brings.The result is nevertheless a vehicle with decreased fuel consumptioncompared with a conventional diesel powered vehicle, and a vehicle that passes the intended emission regulation.
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