Course Outline

of 5
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Document Description
Introduction to Computers and Software (an outline) 1. Introduction 1.1. Basic terminology: computer, user, hardware, software, chip, program 1.1.1. Input: data, instructions (programs, commands, user responses) 1.1.2. Output: text, graphics, video, audio 1.2. Types of computers: personal, notebook, handheld, PDA, internet applicance, server, mainframe, supercomputer 1.3. History 1.3.1. Early devices (Pascaline, Jacquard’s Loom) Babbage (Difference Engine, Analytical Engine) Lo
Document Share
Document Tags
Document Transcript
  Introduction to Computers and Software (an outline)1.Introduction1.1.Basic terminology: computer, user, hardware, software, chip, program1.1.1.Input: data, instructions (programs, commands, user responses)1.1.2.Output: text, graphics, video, audio1.2.Types of computers: personal, notebook, handheld, PDA, internet applicance, server,mainframe, supercomputer 1.3.History1.3.1.Early devices (Pascaline, Jacquard’s Loom) (Difference Engine, Analytical Engine), Hollerith, Watson Sr machine1.3.2.Eniac1.3.3.Modern pioneers: von Neumann, Turing1.3.4.Hardware generations: vacuum tubes, transistors, printed circuits, integrated circuits1.3.4.1.Moore’s law1.3.5.Programming languages1.3.5.1.Machine, assembly1.3.5.2.High-level1.3.6.Key terms: VLSI, microprocessor, microcomputer 1.4.Social implications1.4.1.Terms: computer literacy, the digital divide, computer power 2.Computer Software2.1.Terms: file, menu, font, voice recognition, FAQ, online help, wizard, software suite,single-user license, site license, application window, dialog box, clip art, cross-platformapplication2.2.Application software2.2.1.Word processing2.2.2.Spreadsheet: cell, function, recalculation, charting2.2.3.Database: record, field, query2.2.4.Presentation: slide sorter 2.2.5.Other: accounting software, Computer Aided Design (CAD), desktop publishing, paint/image, multimedia, web authoring2.3.System software2.3.1.Operating System (OS) startup, security, networking, schedule jobs, configure devices,manage memory, programs, user interface2.3.1.2.Terms: user interface, graphical user interface (GUI), desktop, icons, menus,multitasking, multiuser, multiprocessing, fault-tolerant computing, memory management, job,spooling, device driver, virtual memory, file allocation table, screen saver DOC, Windows (3.1, 95, 98, NT, 2000, ME, XP), Mac OS (X),Unix, Linux, Solaris2.3.1.4.Location (floppy, CD, hard disk) (startup) vs. warm in booting2.3.2.Utility programs: file viewer, file compression, backup, screen saver, disk scanner,disk defragmenter 3.Computer hardware3.1.System unit3.1.1.Terms: motherboard, chip, memory, storage, expansion slot (plug and play), port(serial vs parallel), bus (expansion bus), power supply3.1.2.Central Processing Unit (CPU) cycle (fetch, decode, execute, store) control unit, arithmetic logic unit, byte, bit, ASCII, register, systemclock, pipelining, coprocessor, parallel processing3.2.Memory3.2.1.Measuring: kilo, mega, giga, tera, peta3.2.2.Volatile vs. nonvolatile3.2.3.RAM vs ROM3.2.4.Cache3.3.Storage3.3.1.Versus memory3.3.2.Device vs. medium3.3.3.Terms: reading, writing, access time, capacity, track, sector, formatting, backup,sequential vs. direct access3.3.4.Floppy disk (and drive)3.3.5.Hard disk head crash, disk cache, partition3.3.5.2.Tracks, sectors, platters3.3.5.3.RAID (mirroring and striping) hard drive3.3.6.Compact disks (and drives) CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-ROM, DVD+RW3.3.6.2.Terms: land, pit, track, sectors, transfer rate (e.g., 40X)3.3.7.Tape (and drive)3.3.8.PC Cards3.3.9.Miniature mobile storage (Compact Flash, Memory Stick, Microdrive, SmartMedia)3.4.Input Devices3.4.1.Keyboard3.4.1.1.Terms: typing area, numeric keypad, function keys3.4.2.Pointing Devices3.4.2.1.Pointing operations3., click, right-click, double-click, drag, right-draw, rotate wheel3.4.2.2.Mouse, optical mouse3.4.2.3.Others: trackball, touchpad, pointing stick, light pen, touch screen, stylus3.4.2.4.Handwriting recognition software3.4.3.Sound3.4.3.1.Types: voice, music3.4.3.2.Microphone  3.4.4.Image3.4.4.1.Digital camera3.4.4.2.Scanners (flatbed, optical readers) resolution, pixel, image processing3. readers3. character recognition (OCR), bar code scanner, OpticalMark Recognition (OMR) bar code, turnaround document3.4.5.Video3.4.5.1.Web cam3.4.5.2.PC Video camera3.5.Output Devices3.5.1.Display device3.5.1.1.Terms: soft copy, pixel, viewable size, display resolution, dot pitch, refreshrate, video card, terminal (dumb, intelligent, point of sale) monitor Crystal Display (LCD) – passive versus active matrix3.5.1.4.Gas plasma monitor 3.5.2.Printer hard copy, resolution, dots per inch (dpi) printers3. printer printer printers3. output3.5.3.1.Types: voice, music3.5.3.2.Speakers, headsets3.5.4.Other: data projector, fax machine (fax modem)4.Networking4.1.Internet4.1.1.Services: email, World-Wide Web, file transfer (FTP), chat, message boards, instantmessaging, newsgroups4.1.2.History: ARPANET (distributed functioning) – none (public, cooperative through committees)4.1.3.Terms: internet service provider (ISP), online service provider, internet protocol (IP)address, email address, user ID, domain name, netiquette4.1.4.World-Wide Web4.1.4.1.Terms: web browser, URL, search engine, multimedia, hyperlink (link),hypertext, web community, web-casting, web application, web-based training, web publishing4.1.4.2.Web pages: personal, portal, informational, business, advocacy, news4.1.4.3.Multimedia: images (GIF, JPG, PNG), thumbnail image, animation, audio(MP3), video, streaming audio or video, virtual reality B2C, C2C, B2B4. brick-and-mortar business, clicks-and-mortar business, peer-to- peer (P2P), vertical B2B, business-to-employee (B2E), online banking, online trading4. streams: ads, sales, subscription, web hosting, etc. storefronts: development, secure checkout, secure server 4.2.Communications4.2.1.Terms: sending and receiving (communications) devices, communications software,communications channel, analog vs. digital data, intranet, extranet, firewall, home network,intelligent home network 4.2.2.Network types4.2.2.1.Local Area Network (LAN) peer-to-peer, client/server topology: bus, ring, star Area Network (WAN) Area Network (MAN)4.2.3.Network communications technology4.2.3.1.Ethernet4.2.3.2.Token ring4.2.3.3.Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) packets, routers, packet switching4.2.3.4.Wireless Applications Protocol (WAP)4.2.4.Connection devices4.2.4.1.Terms: transfer rate, hub, channel, bandwidth4.2.4.2.Type of connection: Dial-up lines, dedicated lines (DSL, Cable, T1, T3) modems (dial-up, DSL, cable), network interface cards4.2.5.Transmission media: twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, wireless(broadcast radio, microwave radio, satellite, cellular, infrared)5.Social implications5.1.Terms: videoconferencing, telecommuting, computer-based training, distance learning,edutainment, computer addiction, green computing, ergonomics, artificial intelligence, intelligentagents, robots, computer crime, cyber crime5.2.Security and Privacy5.2.1.Computer viruses5.2.1.1.Terms: rescue disk, virus hoax5.2.1.2.Methods of infection: attached to email, attached to code (open or run toinfect) boot sector, file, macro, polymorphic, stealth5.2.1.4.Activation: logic bomb, time bomb, malware5.2.1.5.Protection: antivirus program5.2.2.Unauthorized access5.2.2.1.Terms: hacker, cracker of security5. devices (fingerprint scanner, hand geometry system, facerecognition, iris verification)
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!