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  • 2. Abstract Regional and global integration initiatives push for more energy integration to increase the access to and reliability of energy services. As a result, the ECOWAS community is actively engaged in regional integration and cooperation in the area of cross-border infrastructure projects for electricity and gas supply as well as in the harnessing of its renewable energy and energy efficiency potentials. However, that initiative has been faced with a lot of challenges despite the success of similar initiatives around the world. Proffered solutions to these challenges a few, and usually the approach taken is based solely on the researches discipline. This proposal proposes a multidisciplinary approach using Systems Engineering tools and methods to develop solutions to these challenges. The Systems Engineering approach is suited for the complexity and dynamism associated with the West African sub-region.
  • 3. Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Literature Review.........................................................................................5 2.1 Overview of Systems Engineering..........................................................5 2.1.1. Key Features of Systems Engineering.................................................7 2.1.2 Overview of Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE)..................8 2.1.3 Application of Systems Engineering Techniques in Energy Sector.......8 2.2 Development and Research into the West African Energy Integration Initiative..........................................................................................................9 3. Research problem......................................................................................10 4. Significance of Study..................................................................................11 5. Proposed Methodology .............................................................................11 8. Conclusion .................................................................................................12 References.......................................................................................................13
  • 4. 1. Introduction The International Council of Systems Engineering (INCOSE) in its vision 2025 states that one of the greatest challenges that will be faced in the coming century will not be the availability of technology, but the management of it. However an engineering problem should have an engineering solution and therefore the solution to the management of engineering technology cannot and should not be left in the hands of the management sciences but engineered by engineers. In the process of developing these solutions, the Systems Engineering (SE) discipline was created. This relatively new engineering discipline aims at managing the complex integration of technology with human activity systems. Presently, the drive towards globalisation has ensured that the need for interactions and integration of economies, business, industries and technology between countries, regions or continents is a prerequisite to success for organisations. However, in the process of integration complexities arise; complexities in functions, interactions and representation are all undesired effects of any integration process. Technology in various forms, such as information systems like satellites, radar and computers or infrastructural systems such as electrical power grids or transportation systems are all a combination of various components put together to perform a specific task. Individually, each of such systems has an inherent complexity to manage, to ensure safe and efficient usage during their life cycle. When however such systems are required to be used between different socio-economic, geographical or regulatory areas, there is an exponential increase in the complexity of operating such systems and a subsequent reduction in the possibility of efficient running of the system. Therefore regional integration refers to the interaction between two or more cities or countries to achieve a clear assignment with reasonable resource distribution and harmonious coordination. Examples of regional Integration successes include the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreement which have both promoted efficient integration of infrastructure, communication and financial markets
  • 5. leading to economic growth of member nations. In Africa, the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), champions the drive towards the integration of various sectors including energy between African countries. Such integration initiatives promoted by NEPAD include the South African Power Pool (SAPP) and the West African Power Pool (WAPP). However there has been lots of challenges to these initiatives especially for the WAPP as discussed by the likes of E. Gnansounou et al, and P. Pineeau and these challenges have resulted in the motivation for carrying out this PHD work. 2. Literature Review There is a large body of knowledge documented on the research of the application of Systems Engineering to other industries besides the defense, airspace, and Information Technology industries within which the discipline was originally developed around. The spread of Systems Engineering methodologies can be attributed to the growing complexity of systems in every industry. A good example is the adoption of Systems Engineering by the AKER Oil and Gas Company in it research activities for managing its production processes. With such current applications of SE to solving complex organisational challenges in the Energy sector, the application of SE to optimising the West African sub-regions energy integration process should be researched. 2.1 Overview of Systems Engineering There have been several definition to the discipline of Systems Engineering. The International Council of Systems Engineers (INCOSE) recognises up to three definitions for it in the Systems Engineering Handbook. However only one of these definitions is stated on the INCOSE website and it defines SE as “an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. It focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements and proceeding with the design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem: operations, cost and schedule, performance, training and support, test, manufacturing, and disposal. SE considers both business and
  • 6. technical needs of all customers with goal of providing quality product that meets the user’s needs.” Regardless of the various definitions given to Systems Engineering by scholars and professional on the subject, 3 fundamental descriptions are recognized in all of them – (1) Discipline (2) Approach and (3) Process. By a play of words, Systems Engineering could easily mean the engineering of systems. However what is considered a system in the systems engineering discipline? Amongst other definitions, INCOSE defines a system as [1] “A combination of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes.” and “An integrated set of elements, subsystems, or assemblies that accomplish a defined objective. These elements include products (hardware, software, and firmware), processes, people, information, techniques, facilities, services, and other support element”. The British Royal Academy of Engineering classifies a system into 3 categories of complexity [2]: 1. Sub-systems which usually exists within a single discipline or organization for example the charging systems for an inverter, or the sensory systems of an industrial automated machine. 2. A system which requires more than one engineering discipline or organization to design, construct, maintain and use such a car, an electric power station or an agricultural processing plant. 3. A system of systems that impacts, or is impacted by, many disciplines and economic, social or environmental factors such as road networks, military command and control and electricity supply.
  • 7. Today’s complex System of Systems (SOS) requires a multi-disciplinary approach applied across their life cycle development and management. This implies that a pluralist approach using multiple system methodologies. The scope of application of systems engineering for this proposed work falls within the system of systems category. 2.1.1. Key Features of Systems Engineering The SE discipline has a set of activities associated with it, these include but are not limited to: requirements analysis/engineering, verification and validation; functional analysis and allocations; trade studies and system architecture specification. These activities are carried as part of the SE process. The most widely accepted SE process model is the V-Model [3]. All associated activities within the SE discipline for the lifecycle of a system are carried out with reference to this process or its hybrids.
  • 8. 2.1.2 Overview of Model Based Systems Engineering Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE), is a SE concept that emphasizes the application of rigorous visual modelling principles and best practices to Systems Engineering activities throughout the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). It is defined as - “the formalized application of modeling to support system requirements, design, analysis, verification and validation activities beginning in the conceptual design phase and continuing throughout development and later life cycle phases.”[4] Since SE activities require rigorous documentation, MBSE has been preferred as an alternative to the document-centric nature of SE. It is recommended by the Object Management Group (OMG), that in using MBSE approach to system development, the MBSE process should be applied in a straightforward and systematic manner and the process must support all SDLC phases such as Requirements Engineering, System Analysis, System Design, Implementation, System Integration, and Testing. The MBSE process must also support full SDLC requirements traceability, including comprehensive Verification & Validation of all functional and non- functional requirements of the system. Enabling technologies for carrying out MBSE include – Model Based Languages such as SysML and UML and Model Based Architecture Frameworks such as TRACK and FEAF. Cook et al discussed one important advantage of MBSE which is that knowledge generated in one systems engineering activity is made available to the other activities. 2.1.3 Application of Systems Engineering Techniques in Energy Sector SE methodologies and techniques was developed around mostly defense, software and aircraft technologies. However, more recently has its methodologies been adopted in the energy sector. Some examples includes Neil Snyder and Mark Antkowiak study on the application of SE in the renewable energy research environment [5]; Hans Dahl’s exploration of SE as
  • 9. an appropriate approach in decision-making and trade-off analysis for the Statoil natural gas transport operations; and Paoli et al studies on the application of MBSE for small commercial product development in the electrical domain [6]. International Energy Organisations such as Siemens and Aker Solutions, have incorporated SE methodologies for improving on product performance by accounting for all domains, conditions, sub-systems and interface definitions in a system. 2.2 Development and Research into the West African Energy Integration Initiative. The system or process in consideration for the proposed work is the West African sub regional Energy systems. The ECOWAS Treaty of 1975, revised in 1992, is concerned with the energy sector and seeks to establish a common energy policy and a collective solution for the resolution of energy development problems in member countries [7]. Some initiatives and results of the regional energy integration efforts include – ∑ The development of the West African Power Pool (WAPP) and its Master Plan aimed at the creation of a regional electricity market by 2020/25. ∑ The development of the West African gas pipeline (WAGP) designed to transport Nigerian natural gas to power plants and industries in the neighboring countries of Ghana, Togo and Benin. Others includes the establishment of the ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) and the adoption of the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Policy and the ECOWAS Policy on Energy Efficiency. Various studies have been carried out by researchers and scholars on methods and models to be used in making the sub regional energy integration process efficient and effective. Such models include the South African Power Pool (SAPP) model and the pioneer Nordic power market, NORDEL. However, it still remains unclear what model is to be used for the WAPP project due to the lack of clarity of its integration objectives [8]. The likes of E.Gnansounou et al have proposed a techno-economic model for analyzing West African regional electricity integration strategies. A comparison
  • 10. of two strategies – the Autarkical Strategy and the Integration Strategy - was carried using their model to determine which would be a preferred strategy for implementing WAPP. 3. Research problem One of the challenges of deriving efficient integration of technological systems operating between two or more organisations, regions or sub-regions is the issue of technical and regulatory/policy harmonisation . In particular for this PhD work, the problem to be investigated would be: What are the key requirements and drivers needed for efficient integration of the West–African sub-regional energy sector and how can these requirements be managed holistically to ensure the development of an optimized integration process. The above problem statement supports various views about obstacles to energy integration proposed by various groups and researchers. Pierre-Olivier Pineau [9] proposed that the lack of ownership, unclear and conflicting reform objectives and uncertainty of integration outcomes are issues facing the current integration approach. He states further that in the current integration approach, institutional capacity and integration environment are largely ignored. Hyacinth Elayo [10] identified the issue of inadequate regulatory frameworks as one of the obstacles to the WA energy integration project. He advocate for an appropriate (simple, flexible and robust) institutional structure, consisting of all main power utilities within the sub-region as part of the solution to the problem. Niyimbona (11) specifying on the WAPP project, proposed that aside the underdevelopment of transmission networks and lines, the power pooling project is also constrained by lack of regional regulations and appropriate mechanisms for dispute resolutions.
  • 11. In summary, each one has identified a lack of structure or framework that encompasses a holistic view of the sub-regions integration initiative as an issue to its realisation. 4. Significance of Study a. The aim of this study is to develop a conceptual framework that will act as a strategic planning tool which would improve for efficient integration of energy technology systems shared within the West African sub region. The proposed framework would have the capacity to evolve with technology and other dynamics of the system. It would have a holistic approach, taking into account all aspects of the systems and their interactions into consideration throughout the SDLC. b. The following objectives are set to be accomplished during the course of the study: i. To establish a consistent definition and categorisation of the primary components for the integrated energy system project. ii. To produce an organised, clear and dynamic architecture of the system using the investigated relationships between established primary components. iii. Document using models, the specifications of the system, with innovative systems engineering modelling tools and techniques such as SysML. As a result of this work, it is envisaged that the drive towards an integration of West African economies and infrastructure will be more organised and structured. Inputs from all stakeholder will be systematically documented, defined and categorised in a way that will be useful and clear to engineers implementing the solutions. Also in line with systems thinking methodology, more effort will be put into planning to reduce cost incurred by changes or errors in technical specification and inconsistent or unclear stakeholder requirements. 5. Proposed Methodology
  • 12. The project is planned to start with a theoretical in depth study of the effects differences in regional environmental and technological layout such as control procedures, operational rules, government policies or social climate has on the ease of technology integration within the sub-region. The organisation with which the research will focus on for these studies will be the West African Power Pool and to an extent the West African Gas Pipeline. The following investigations will then be carried out to generate data for architecting and modelling activities: i. Comparison of the current integration template and model for energy systems used by the West African sub-region with templates used by successful regions such as the Eurozone or NORDEL. ii. Investigation into the system drivers and elements that drove the successful models and into whether such drivers are present within the West African sub-region iii. Research into the types of energy systems technology operated by various members of sub-region. iv. Carry out requirement engineering activities on the system using data gotten from the investigations and other data collection techniques. v. Using the defined system requirement and elements, various architectural views of the system will be modelled using MBSE. vi. The conceptual framework will be developed for iterations of the models gotten from the system specifications. 8. Conclusion This work is expected to add to body of knowledge within the Electrical Engineering Community and Systems Engineering community, Most of the system elements to be defined and categorised fall within the power industry. The work also will have practical applications in on-going ECOWAS activities and NEPAD initiatives. Significant modelling and computational challenges are expected to emerge during this research work. I also expect some difficulties in the description, definition and integration of some components in the system especially the
  • 13. non-technical elements. Although the work will acknowledge the importance of financial systems and trading as an important factor in the integration process, research into those areas will be out of the scope of this work. The work is expected to provide a number of peer viewed and indexed journal publications and contribute to the Model Based Systems Engineering applications discussion. It hopes to bring the awareness of Systems Engineering to the engineering management community of the organisations researched. References 1. INCOSE "Systems Engineering Handbook", Version 3.2, January 2010,, INCOSE-TP-2003-00203.2 2. The Royal Academy of Engineering. "Creating Systems that Work: principals of engineering systems for the 21st century", June 2007, ISBN 1-903496-34-9, http://www. k!news/publications/list/reports/Creating Systems that work.pdf 3. U.S Department for Transportation. (2007). Systems Engineering for Intelligent Transport Sys
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