3rd-Bones and Articulartions of the Upper Limb (New File)

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Bones And Articulations Of Upper Limb GanSheng-Wei Department of Anatomy Introduction From the biological evolution point of view, the upper limb and lower limb are homogeneous organs. Therefore, when we study the appendicular bones and joints, we’ d better compare the upper limb with the lower limb. The arrangements and the number of bones are similar. Owing to the erect standing, the upper limb is a tool for labor. To fit the function, the limb has some characteristics which are as follows
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  Bones And Articulations Of Upper Limb GanSheng-Wei   Department of Anatomy  Introduction From the biological evolutionpoint of view, the upper limb andlower limb are homogeneousorgans. Therefore, when we studythe appendicular bones and joints,we’ d better compare the upper limb with the lower limb. Thearrangements and the number of bones are similar. Owing to theerect standing, the upper limb is atool for labor.  To fit the function, the limb has somecharacteristics which are as follows:  ⒈ Compared with the lower limb, the bones of the upper limb aremore slender and lighter than those inlower limb. ⒉ The joints are flabbier .  ⒊ Concerning the 1st metacarpal bone: ⑴ having a saddle-shaped base, which isdifferent from others.  ⑵ rotated around others to form a rightangle that is easily to grasp the tools.It is a great difference from other mammals.  Ⅰ .The bones   of upper limb   Including the shoulder girdle and the bones of free up limb ⒈ The shoulder girdle   ⑴ Clavicle : it is a “S-shaped” bone. When you study it,you must notice:  ① To discern which is medial end and which is lateralend.  ② To discern the superior and inferior surfaces, theformer is smoother than the later.
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