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World Heritage Scanned Nomination File Name: 945rev.pdf UNESCO Region: ASIA AND THE PACIFIC __________________________________________________________________________________________________ SITE NAME: Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus ) DATE OF INSCRIPTION: 7th July 2004 STATE PARTY: INDIA CRITERIA: C (ii) (iv) DECISION OF THE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE: Excerpt from the Report of th
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  World Heritage Scanned Nomination File Name:  945 rev .pdf UNESCO Region:  ASIA AND THE PACIFIC    __________________________________________________________________________________________________ SITE NAME:   Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus   )  DATE OF INSCRIPTION: 7th July 2004  STATE PARTY: INDIA   CRITERIA: C (ii) (iv)   DECISION OF THE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE: Excerpt from the Report of the 28  th   Session of the World Heritage Committee Criterion (ii):   Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus of Mumbai (formerly Bombay) exhibits an important interchange of influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture, and from Indian traditional buildings. It became a symbol for Mumbai as a major mercantile port city on the Indian Subcontinent within the British Commonwealth. Criterion (iv):   Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is an outstanding example of late 19th century railway architecture in the British Commonwealth, characterized by Victorian Gothic Revival and traditional Indian features, as well as its advanced structural and technical solutions . BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus in Mumbai, is an outstanding example of Victorian Gothic Revival architecture in India, blended with themes deriving from Indian traditional architecture. The building, designed by the British architect F.W. Stevens, became the symbol of Bombay as the ‘Gothic City’ and the major international mercantile port of India. The terminal was built over ten years starting in 1878 according to a High Victorian Gothic design based on late medieval Italian models. Its remarkable stone dome, turrets, pointed arches, and eccentric ground plan are close to traditional Indian palace architecture. It is an outstanding example of the meeting of two cultures as British architects worked with Indian craftsmen to include Indian architectural tradition and idioms forging a new style unique to Bombay. 1.b State, Province or Region: City of Mumbai, Maharashtra State  1.d Exact location: N18 55 23 E72 50 04    PREFACE India has some of the world’s most outstanding architecture ranging from rock cut caves, to temples, mosques and mausoleums, medieval palace complexes, step wells and churches. The Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic art is well known. The earliest colonial architecture of Portuguese srcin like the church complexes in old Goa are recognized as masterpieces. Lesser known is the colonial Indo-British architecture of big metropolises like Bombay, Madras, Calcutta and Delhi. This architecture is about three centuries old and is a blend of various styles like Indo-Saracenic, Victorian Gothic, Neo Classical and Art Deco. British architecture in India was a grand statement of imperial intention complimented by local skills and craftsmanship. It is this architecture, which introduced new styles, materials, construction techniques and traditions. In the last decade there has been an increasing recognition of the importance of colonial and 19 th  century architecture both nationally and internationally. The style is now considered unique and the need to preserve it for posterity is well recognised. However, there has not been a single nomination of British colonial urban architecture in India and this is an important gap in the 23 World Heritage Sites that have been nominated by UNESCO.   The three best buildings designed and constructed by the British in India are the Rashtrapati Bhavan or Viceroy’s Residence in New Delhi, the Victoria Memorial in Calcutta and the Victoria Terminus Station, now known as the Chattarapati Shivaji Terminus, CST, in Mumbai. The CST is the finest amongst these examples. Dr Christopher London, architectural Historian and an expert on Victorian Architecture in Mumbai notes “... CST is to the British Empire what Taj was to the Mughal Empire” . It is one of the most splendid examples of Gothic Revival architecture in the world. But it is not currently well known outside India because it was built in Mumbai in a distant part of the empire and not in the West. Victoria Terminus or VT station as it was and is still popularly known, was renamed in 1990’s after the legendary local 17th century warrior Shivaji who fought against the Mughals. It is the centerpiece of Indo- British architecture and the premier symbol of the most important development in India since Sher Shah Suri built the Grand Trunk Road - the construction of the Indian Railways. The construction of the railways was an engineering marvel that revolutionized the economy of the country, catapulting it overnight from a medieval nation into the industrial era. The Indian railway network, was the largest in the world when laid in the mid 19th century. It still continues to fulfill its srcinal intention, occupying an equally important status today. Originally known as the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) when it was established, the network starting from CST became the Central Railways after Independence. The Indian railway, which is still one of the largest network of railways in the world, srcinated at the historic CST site. The first historic train left for Thana covering a distance of 21 miles on 16 th  April 1853. At the time, there was only a small shed as the station and it was known as Bori Bundar station.  The CST station was the first railway terminus building in the sub-continent and the first in Asia too. It is one of the finest Victorian Gothic buildings in Mumbai both in grandeur and in detailing as compared to other Gothic Revival buildings in the city and the country. It is significant both in its exteriors and interiors and it still has its authenticity preserved to a large extent. The CST is a commercial palace that epitomizes the glory and romance of the railways. It was a commercial venture that was extremely profitable both for the West and for India. The building represents for the way it combines the unique Indian tradition of craftsmanship, which is evident in the abundant carving and other stylistic embellishments, with British architectural skills. It was seen at the time as a statement of Indo–British endeavor. Rudyard Kipling’s father, Lockwood Kipling, who was responsible for training many of the Indian sculptors involved. And the building is famous especially for its sculptural embellishments. The statue of Progress on top of the dome is a tribute to the vision of those who built it. It expresses the confidence of the local community that commissioned and contributed to this building. It is hoped that the nomination of CST will give long overdue recognition to the architecture of the Raj especially the buildings of the industrial era in India. This should be the first step towards enhancing awareness and for extending the nomination to a larger context. This would include the entire ensemble of significant Gothic Revival public buildings, which were erected as part of the restructuring` plan for Bombay in mid 19 th  cent, intended to allow Bombay to take its place amongst the great cities of world. Special thanks are due to INTACH Mumbai chapter especially Mrs. Tasneem Mehta- Convenor INTACH and Coordinator of this project, Mr. Vikas Dilawari -Conservation Architect and his team of architects. Valuable inputs and feedback on cultural significance and architectural history were provided by Mr. Foy Nissen, architectural historian, Mumbai, Dr Colin Cunningham, Senior Visiting Research Fellow at the Open University, UK and from Dr Christopher London, architectural historian from the UK. Thanks are also due to Solicitor Rajan Jayakar for lending copies of old postcards. Thanks are due to Mega vision and its technicians for preparing a digitized map of Fort area and for digitizing the drawings of CST and other buildings at such a short notice. Jan 2003   Contents Photographs  Archival i-iv Present day v-xxxiii 1. Identification of the Property 01 1.a Country (and State Party if different) 01 1.b State, Province or Region 01 1.c Name of Property 01 1.d Exact location on map and indication of geographical coordinates 01 1.e Maps and/or plans showing boundary of area proposed for inscription 01 1.f Area of property proposed for inscription (ha.) and buffer zone 02 2. Justification for Inscription 04 2.a Statement of significance 04 2.b Possible comparative analysis 09 2.c Authenticity / Integrity 19 2.d Criteria under which inscription is proposed 20 3. Description 25 3.a Description of Property 25 3.b History and Development 27 3.c Form and date of most recent records of property 28 3.d Present state of conservation 28 3.e Policies and programmes related to the presentation and promotion 29 4. Management 30 4.a Ownership 30 4.b Legal status 30 4.c Protective measures and means of implementing them 30 4.d Agency/agencies with management authority 31 4.e Level at which management is exercised 31 4.f Agreed plans related to property 32 4.g Sources and levels of finance 34 4.h Sources of expertise and training in conservation & management techniques34 4.i Visitor facilities and statistics 35 4.j Property management plan and statement of objectives 35 4.k Staffing levels 36 5. Factors Affecting the Property 37 5.a Development Pressures 37 5.b Environmental Pressures 38 5.c Natural disasters and preparedness 38
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