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Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Faculty Members of Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran Author: Saeed Karimi, Department of Agricultural extension and Education, College of Agriculture Bu-Ali Sina University Hamedan, Iran Karimis54@yahoo.com Abstract The job satisfaction of faculty members is the most important factor in higher education. If effectiveness and productivity of the higher education system and academic community are to be enhanced, than we must examine what factors influenc
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    Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Faculty Members of Bu-Ali SinaUniversity, Hamedan, Iran Author: Saeed Karimi, Department of Agricultural extension and Education,College of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedan, IranKarimis54@yahoo.com    Abstract The job satisfaction of faculty members is the most important factor in higher education. If effectiveness and productivity of the higher education system and academic community are to beenhanced, than we must examine what factors influences the job satisfaction of faculty members.The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to examine factors affecting jobsatisfaction of faculty members of Bu-Ali Sina University that explained by Herzberg jobmotivator and hygiene factors. A random sample of 120 faculty member of Bu-Ali SinaUniversity, was selected as a statistical sample. Employing a descriptive-correlative surveymethod and data were collected through questionnaire. The faculty members were generallysatisfied with their jobs. However, male faculty members were less satisfied than female facultymembers. The factor “work itself” was the most motivating aspect for faculty. The leastmotivating aspect was “working conditions.” The demographic characteristics were negligiblyrelated to overall job satisfaction. The factors “work itself,” and “advancement” explained 60 percent of the variance among faculty members’ overall level of job satisfaction. The demographiccharacteristics (age, years of experience, academic rank, degree) were negligibly related tooverall job satisfaction. Keywords: Faculty Members, Job Satisfaction, Motivator Factors, Hygiene Factors  Introduction Job satisfaction is an elusive, even mythical, concept that has been increasinglychallenged and refined particularly since the Herzberg, Mauser and Snyderman study in1959. The job satisfaction of an employee is a topic that has received considerableattention by researchers and managers alike (Gautam; Mandal and Dalal, 2006). The mostimportant information to have regarding an employee in an organization is a validatedmeasure of his/her level of job satisfaction (Roznowski and Hulin, 1992). Behavioral andsocial science research suggests that job satisfaction and job performance are positivelycorrelated (Bowran and Todd, 1999). A better understanding of job satisfaction andfactors associated with it helps managers guide employees' activities in a desireddirection. The morale of employees is a deciding factor in the organization's efficiency(Chaudhary and Banerjee, 2004). Thus, it is fruitful to say that managers, supervisors,human resource specialists, employees, and citizens in general are concerned with waysof improving job satisfaction (Cranny et al 1992).The foundation of job satisfaction or job motivation theory was introduced byMaslow. He (1943, 1954) asserts that human motives emerge sequentially to satisfy ahierarchy of five needs: physiological (food, clothing, shelter, sex), safety (physicalprotection), social (opportunities to develop close associations whit other persons),achievement/esteem (prestige received from others), and self-actualization (opportunitiesfor self-fulfillment and accomplishment through personal growth). Individual needsatisfaction is influenced both by the importance attached to various needs and the degreeto which each individual perceive that different aspects of his or her life should, andactually do, fulfill these needs. Porter (1961) argues that within the work environment,individual develop attitudes concerning their jobs based upon their perception of thepresence or absence of positively-valued job characteristics that address specific needs.Thus, a person’s job satisfaction is contingent on that individual’s expectations of andactual need fulfillment from his or her position. Job dissonance result when job-relatedexceptions and needs remain unfulfilled.Herzberg, Mauser and Snyderman (1959) posited the view that job satisfaction is nota unidimensional concept, but rather that work-related variables which contribute to jobsatisfaction are separate and distinct from those factors which contribute to jobdissatisfaction. By 1968 Herzberg had advanced the dual factor theory, which held that tonot have job satisfaction does not imply dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction,whereas the absence of job dissatisfaction does not imply satisfaction with the job, butonly no dissatisfaction. Looked at in terms of ‘opposites’, the ‘opposite’ of jobsatisfaction is no satisfaction rather than dissatisfaction and the ‘opposite’ of jobdissatisfaction is no job dissatisfaction, rather than satisfaction. According to Herzberg(1959), intrinsic elements of the job are related to the actual content of work, such asachievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibilities, and advancement. These werereferred to as ‘motivational’ factors and are significant elements in job satisfaction. Bycontrast, Herzberg described extrinsic factors as elements associated with the work environment, such as working conditions, salary, working conditions, supervision,company policy, and interpersonal relationships. These were referred to as ‘context’ or‘hygiene’ factors which are related to job dissatisfaction. Herzberg concluded thatsatisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on the same continuum. As a result, he argued that  motivational factors can cause satisfaction or no satisfaction, while hygiene factors causedissatisfaction when absent, and no dissatisfaction when present (Lacy and Sheehan,1999). Following is a description of the motivator-hygiene factors according to Castilloand Cano (2004, p. 66).- Recognition - Acts of notice, praise, or blame supplied by one or more superior, peer,colleague, management person, client, and/or the general public.- Achievement - Accomplishment of endeavors including instances wherein failures wereincurred. Similarly, instances were included wherein neither success nor failures wereincurred.- Possibility of Growth - Whether a change in status was possible, irrespective of the factthat the change could be upward or downward in status.- Advancement - Designated an actual change in job status.- Salary - All sequences of events in which compensation plays a major role.- Interpersonal Relations - Relationships involving superiors, subordinates, and peers.- Supervision - The supervisor’s willingness or unwillingness to delegate responsibilityand/or willingness to teach subordinates.- Responsibility - Satisfaction derived from being given control of personal work or thework of others and/or new job responsibilities.- Policy and Administration – Events in which some or all aspects of the organizationwere related to job satisfaction.- Working Condition – Physical working conditions, facilities, and quality of work asrelated to job satisfaction.- Work Itself - The actual job performance related to job satisfaction.Numerous researchers have investigated the concept of job satisfaction and factorsthat explain how satisfied workers are with their positions. Much of the job satisfactionresearch has focused on employees in the private sector (Niehouse, 1986; Lacy,Bokemeier & Shepard, 1983; Lawler & Porter, 1968; Herzberg et al. 1957). Theseresearchers have found that a variety of factors influence the job satisfaction of employees.Other researchers have examined the job satisfaction of university faculty. Blackbum,Horowitz, Edington, and Klos (1986) have found that job related stress is positivelyrelated to job related strain which then negatively impacts the health, life satisfaction, andjob satisfaction of university faculty and administrators. Personal factors, social supportsystems, and health fitness of faculty and administrators moderate the negativerelationships between job strain, health, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction (Blackbum,Horowitz, Edington, and Klos, 1986). In addition, Sorcinelli and Near (1989) found thatthe job satisfaction of university faculty is independent of gender and positivelycorrelated with academic rank. Sorcinelli and Near (1989) also found that job satisfactionis positively related to faculty’s life satisfaction and their non-work satisfaction.While the motivator-hygiene theory was supported in educational settings (Padilla-Velez, 1993), a review of literature revealed criticisms (Moxley, 1977; Padilla-Velez,1993; Poling, 1990; Steers & Porter, 1992) of the motivator-hygiene theory. Steers andPorter (1992) submitted that the motivator-hygiene theory attempted to describe fivedifferent theoretical interpretations. Bowen (1980, p. 107) wrote that “Herzberg’sMotivator-Hygiene Theory is not applicable to teacher educators in agriculture.” Bowen(1980) added that “all ten factors were related to job satisfaction and the five hygiene
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