Biology Study Sheet March 26

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Biology Study Sheet Endocrine System vs. Nervous System – – Take the nervous system and consider it like a phone The nervous system relays a quick message to a single destination (useful b/c of speed) Take the endocrine system and compare it to the internet While the relaying of messages through using hormones is a bit slower, mass broadcasts messages The endocrine system works using positive and negative feedback. Exocrine glands consist of ducts. Endocrine glands are ductless and the horm
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  Biology Study SheetEndocrine System vs. Nervous System –Take the nervous system and consider it like a phoneThe nervous system relays a quick message to a single destination (useful b/c of speed) –Take the endocrine system and compare it to the internetWhile the relaying of messages through using hormones is a bit slower, mass broadcastsmessagesThe endocrine system works using positive and negative feedback.Exocrine glands consist of ducts.Endocrine glands are ductless and the hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream.Hormones are proteins and steroid based lipids.Endocrine Glands Hormones/FunctionsHypothalamus –Controls the secretions of the pituitarygland, secretions and amounts are basedon information collected by the nervoussystemPituitary –Secretes nine hormones controlling thefunctions of other body glands/ systems –ADH regulates reabsorption of water inthe kidneys  –  TSH stimulates the secretion of thyroidhormones which speed up metabolismPara thyroid –Parathyroid hormones increase theconcentration of calcium ions in the bloodThymus –Tymosin which stimulates theformation of other hormonesAdrenal  –  Aldosterone regulates the reabsorptionof sodium ions and the excretion of  potassium ions by the kidneys –Cortisol helps regulate the rate of metabolism –Epinephrine and norepinephrineincrease heart rate, blood flow, flow tomuscles, air passageways to widen, andthe release of extra glucose into the bloodThyroid –TSH increases metabolism  Pancreas  –  Secretes insulin and glucagon whichregulate blood sugar (insulin removessugar from the blood and stores it whileglucagon uses stored sugar to increaseamounts in the blood)Testes and ovary –Testosterone triggers sperm production –Estrogen stimulates the menstrual cycleThe Reproductive SystemsMale-First the sperm cells are produced in the seminiferous tubules which are tightly coiled andtwisted objects within the testes. After creation sperm move to the epididymis which is thestructure where sperm fully mature. From here they go through vas deperens which eventuallymerge to the urethra which is the exit out the body through the penis. Seminal Vesicle- secretes sugars for sperm to get energyUrethral gland- secretes lubrication fluidVas deperens- a series of glandsProstate gland secretes alkaline fluid to make basic Female- I think this is easy enough not to include.The Menstrual Cycle –Egg released once a month –If not fertilized, it is expelled from the body along w/ blood, tissue from uterine lining –Ovaries (there are two) alternate and release an egg each month –If it is fertilized the zygote will implant itself within the uterine liningFollicleOvulationCorpus LuteumMenstruationHormones FSHEstrogenLHProgesteroneFSHRole FSH helpsovary maturean egg. Inresponseestrogen buildsup the uterinelining.Tells follicle torelease thematuring egg.Builds up theuterine lining.Starts over thecycle NegativeFeedback Estrogen tells pituitary glandTells pituitarygland to slow  to slow downrelease of FSH.down release of FSH.In menstruation the egg, blood, and the broken uterine lining are expelled.Follicle is that thing surrounding the egg within the ovary.Cleavage  a zygote’s mitotic divisionsBall of cells blastocystuterus implantation*Hereditary is extremely easy so I will just put in these key termsGene- code that’s written in DNA to determine traitsTrait- physical characteristicAllele- version of gene (blue eyes vs. brown eyes)Genotype- genetic makeup or alleles received from mother + father Phenotype- physical appearanceHomozygous- genes are the sameHeterozygous- genes are different1% of sperm released in through vagina reach the fallopian tubes b/c of mutations andstuff. Egg surrounded by thick protective layer covered with binding sites. When a spermattaches to a binding site a sac in the head of the sperm releases strong enzymes to break down the layers. Once sperm enters the egg the nuclei fuse with the sperm’s becomingone with the egg’s making a zygote. A sperm joining with an egg is called fertilization.Zygote goes through cleavage. Forms a group of cells called a blastocyst which is thenimplanted in the uterine lining.In gastrulation the cells in the blastocyst forms in ectoderm, mesoderm, and theendoderm. After implantation the blastocyst creates the membranes amnion and thechorion. The chorion becomes the placenta which is the connection between the mother and the developing uterus. This organ is the organ of respiration, nourishment andexcretion. The mother and child shares halves of the placenta and when something needsto be exchanged diffusion occurs.
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