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Introduction to Computers and Software (an outline) 1. Introduction 1.1. Basic terminology: computer, user, hardware, software, chip, program 1.1.1. Input: data, instructions (programs, commands, user responses) 1.1.2. Output: text, graphics, video, audio 1.2. Types of computers: personal, notebook, handheld, PDA, internet applicance, server, mainframe, supercomputer 1.3. History 1.3.1. Early devices (Pascaline, Jacquard’s Loom) 1.3.1.1. Babbage (Difference Engine, Analytical Engine) 1.3.1.2. Lo
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  Introduction to Computers and Software (an outline)1.Introduction1.1.Basic terminology: computer, user, hardware, software, chip, program1.1.1.Input: data, instructions (programs, commands, user responses)1.1.2.Output: text, graphics, video, audio1.2.Types of computers: personal, notebook, handheld, PDA, internet applicance, server,mainframe, supercomputer 1.3.History1.3.1.Early devices (Pascaline, Jacquard’s Loom)1.3.1.1.Babbage (Difference Engine, Analytical Engine)1.3.1.2.Lovelace, Hollerith, Watson Sr 1.3.1.3.ABC machine1.3.2.Eniac1.3.3.Modern pioneers: von Neumann, Turing1.3.4.Hardware generations: vacuum tubes, transistors, printed circuits, integrated circuits1.3.4.1.Moore’s law1.3.5.Programming languages1.3.5.1.Machine, assembly1.3.5.2.High-level1.3.6.Key terms: VLSI, microprocessor, microcomputer 1.4.Social implications1.4.1.Terms: computer literacy, the digital divide, computer power 2.Computer Software2.1.Terms: file, menu, font, voice recognition, FAQ, online help, wizard, software suite,single-user license, site license, application window, dialog box, clip art, cross-platformapplication2.2.Application software2.2.1.Word processing2.2.2.Spreadsheet: cell, function, recalculation, charting2.2.3.Database: record, field, query2.2.4.Presentation: slide sorter 2.2.5.Other: accounting software, Computer Aided Design (CAD), desktop publishing, paint/image, multimedia, web authoring2.3.System software2.3.1.Operating System (OS)2.3.1.1.Functions: startup, security, networking, schedule jobs, configure devices,manage memory, programs, user interface2.3.1.2.Terms: user interface, graphical user interface (GUI), desktop, icons, menus,multitasking, multiuser, multiprocessing, fault-tolerant computing, memory management, job,spooling, device driver, virtual memory, file allocation table, screen saver 2.3.1.3.Examples: DOC, Windows (3.1, 95, 98, NT, 2000, ME, XP), Mac OS (X),Unix, Linux, Solaris2.3.1.4.Location (floppy, CD, hard disk)2.3.1.5.Booting (startup)2.3.1.5.1.Cold vs. warm  2.3.1.5.2.BIOS2.3.1.5.3.Steps in booting2.3.2.Utility programs: file viewer, file compression, backup, screen saver, disk scanner,disk defragmenter 3.Computer hardware3.1.System unit3.1.1.Terms: motherboard, chip, memory, storage, expansion slot (plug and play), port(serial vs parallel), bus (expansion bus), power supply3.1.2.Central Processing Unit (CPU)3.1.2.1.Machine cycle (fetch, decode, execute, store)3.1.2.2.Terms: control unit, arithmetic logic unit, byte, bit, ASCII, register, systemclock, pipelining, coprocessor, parallel processing3.2.Memory3.2.1.Measuring: kilo, mega, giga, tera, peta3.2.2.Volatile vs. nonvolatile3.2.3.RAM vs ROM3.2.4.Cache3.3.Storage3.3.1.Versus memory3.3.2.Device vs. medium3.3.3.Terms: reading, writing, access time, capacity, track, sector, formatting, backup,sequential vs. direct access3.3.4.Floppy disk (and drive)3.3.5.Hard disk 3.3.5.1.Terms: head crash, disk cache, partition3.3.5.2.Tracks, sectors, platters3.3.5.3.RAID (mirroring and striping)3.3.5.4.Internet hard drive3.3.6.Compact disks (and drives)3.3.6.1.Types: CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-ROM, DVD+RW3.3.6.2.Terms: land, pit, track, sectors, transfer rate (e.g., 40X)3.3.7.Tape (and drive)3.3.8.PC Cards3.3.9.Miniature mobile storage (Compact Flash, Memory Stick, Microdrive, SmartMedia)3.4.Input Devices3.4.1.Keyboard3.4.1.1.Terms: typing area, numeric keypad, function keys3.4.2.Pointing Devices3.4.2.1.Pointing operations3.4.2.1.1.point, click, right-click, double-click, drag, right-draw, rotate wheel3.4.2.2.Mouse, optical mouse3.4.2.3.Others: trackball, touchpad, pointing stick, light pen, touch screen, stylus3.4.2.4.Handwriting recognition software3.4.3.Sound3.4.3.1.Types: voice, music3.4.3.2.Microphone  3.4.4.Image3.4.4.1.Digital camera3.4.4.2.Scanners (flatbed, optical readers)3.4.4.2.1.Terms: resolution, pixel, image processing3.4.4.2.2.Optical readers3.4.4.2.2.1.Optical character recognition (OCR), bar code scanner, OpticalMark Recognition (OMR)3.4.4.2.2.2.Terms: bar code, turnaround document3.4.5.Video3.4.5.1.Web cam3.4.5.2.PC Video camera3.5.Output Devices3.5.1.Display device3.5.1.1.Terms: soft copy, pixel, viewable size, display resolution, dot pitch, refreshrate, video card, terminal (dumb, intelligent, point of sale)3.5.1.2.CRT monitor 3.5.1.3.Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) – passive versus active matrix3.5.1.4.Gas plasma monitor 3.5.2.Printer 3.5.2.1.Terms: hard copy, resolution, dots per inch (dpi)3.5.2.2.Impact printers3.5.2.2.1.Dot-matrix printer 3.5.2.2.2.Line printer 3.5.2.2.3.Plotter 3.5.2.3.Non-impact printers3.5.2.3.1.Ink-jet3.5.2.3.2.Laser 3.5.2.3.3.Thermal3.5.3.Audio output3.5.3.1.Types: voice, music3.5.3.2.Speakers, headsets3.5.4.Other: data projector, fax machine (fax modem)4.Networking4.1.Internet4.1.1.Services: email, World-Wide Web, file transfer (FTP), chat, message boards, instantmessaging, newsgroups4.1.2.History: ARPANET (distributed functioning)4.1.2.1.Control – none (public, cooperative through committees)4.1.3.Terms: internet service provider (ISP), online service provider, internet protocol (IP)address, email address, user ID, domain name, netiquette4.1.4.World-Wide Web4.1.4.1.Terms: web browser, URL, search engine, multimedia, hyperlink (link),hypertext, web community, web-casting, web application, web-based training, web publishing4.1.4.2.Web pages: personal, portal, informational, business, advocacy, news4.1.4.3.Multimedia: images (GIF, JPG, PNG), thumbnail image, animation, audio(MP3), video, streaming audio or video, virtual reality  4.1.4.4.E-Commerce4.1.4.4.1.Types: B2C, C2C, B2B4.1.4.4.2.Terms: brick-and-mortar business, clicks-and-mortar business, peer-to- peer (P2P), vertical B2B, business-to-employee (B2E), online banking, online trading4.1.4.4.3.Revenue streams: ads, sales, subscription, web hosting, etc.4.1.4.4.3.1.Electronic storefronts: development, secure checkout, secure server 4.2.Communications4.2.1.Terms: sending and receiving (communications) devices, communications software,communications channel, analog vs. digital data, intranet, extranet, firewall, home network,intelligent home network 4.2.2.Network types4.2.2.1.Local Area Network (LAN)4.2.2.1.1.Types: peer-to-peer, client/server 4.2.2.1.2.Network topology: bus, ring, star 4.2.2.2.Wide Area Network (WAN)4.2.2.3.Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)4.2.3.Network communications technology4.2.3.1.Ethernet4.2.3.2.Token ring4.2.3.3.Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)4.2.3.3.1.Terms: packets, routers, packet switching4.2.3.4.Wireless Applications Protocol (WAP)4.2.4.Connection devices4.2.4.1.Terms: transfer rate, hub, channel, bandwidth4.2.4.2.Type of connection: Dial-up lines, dedicated lines (DSL, Cable, T1, T3)4.2.4.2.1.Devices: modems (dial-up, DSL, cable), network interface cards4.2.5.Transmission media: twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, wireless(broadcast radio, microwave radio, satellite, cellular, infrared)5.Social implications5.1.Terms: videoconferencing, telecommuting, computer-based training, distance learning,edutainment, computer addiction, green computing, ergonomics, artificial intelligence, intelligentagents, robots, computer crime, cyber crime5.2.Security and Privacy5.2.1.Computer viruses5.2.1.1.Terms: rescue disk, virus hoax5.2.1.2.Methods of infection: attached to email, attached to code (open or run toinfect)5.2.1.3.Types: boot sector, file, macro, polymorphic, stealth5.2.1.4.Activation: logic bomb, time bomb, malware5.2.1.5.Protection: antivirus program5.2.2.Unauthorized access5.2.2.1.Terms: hacker, cracker 5.2.2.2.Methods of security5.2.2.2.1.Passwords5.2.2.2.2.Biometric devices (fingerprint scanner, hand geometry system, facerecognition, iris verification)
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