Dissociative Identity Disorder from the Child Abuse Wiki

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The causes of dissociative identity disorder are theoretically linked with the interaction of overwhelming stress, traumatic antecedents, insufficient childhood nurturing, and an innate ability to dissociate memories or experiences from consciousness. Prolonged child abuse is frequently a factor, with a very high percentage of patients reporting documented abuse often confirmed by objective evidence. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders states that patients with DID often report having a history of severe physical and sexual abuse. The reports of patients suffering from DID are often confirmed by objective evidence, and the DSM notes that the abusers in those situations may be inclined to deny or distort” these acts. Research has consistently shown that DID is characterized by reports of extensive childhood trauma, usually child abuse. Dissociation is recognized as a symptomatic presentation in response to psychological trauma, extreme emotional stress, and in association with emotional dysregulation and borderline personality disorder. A study of 12 murderers established the connection between early severe abuse and DID.
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  Dissociative Identity Disorder From the Child Abuse Wikihttp://childabusewiki.org/index.php?title=Dissociative_Identity_Disordercopied with permissionDissociative identity disorder is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of twoor more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control ofone’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. Theextent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normalforgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of ageneral medical condition or substance.[1]DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness andidentity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personalhistory, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical andsexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID areoften validated by objective evidence.[1]Physical evidence may include variations in physiological functions in differentidentity states, including differences in vision, levels of pain tolerance,symptoms of asthma, the response of blood glucose to insulin and sensitivity toallergens. Other physical findings may include scars from physical abuse or self-inflicted injuries, headaches or migraines, asthma and irritable bowelsyndrome.[1]DID is found in a variety of cultures around the world. It is diagnosed three tonine times more often in adult females than males. Females average 15 or moreidentities, males eight identities. The sharp rise in the reported cases of DID inthe U.S. may be due the greater awareness of DID’s diagnosis, which has caused anincreased identification of those that were previously undiagnosed.[1]The average time period from DID’s first presentation of symptoms to its diagnosisis six to seven years. DID may become less manifest as patients reach past theirlate 40’s, but it can reemerge during stress, trauma or substance abuse. It issuggested in several studies that DID is more likely to occur with first-degreebiological relatives of people that already have DID, than in the regularpopulation.[1]Contents* 1 Symptomology* 2 Causes* 3 DSM inclusion* 4 History* 5 References* 6 Bibliography* 7 External linksSymptomologyIndividuals diagnosed with DID demonstrate a variety of symptoms with widefluctuations across time; functioning can vary from severe impairment in dailyfunctioning to normal or high abilities.[2]Patients may experience an extremely broad array of other symptoms that resembleepilepsy, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, post traumatic stressdisorder, personality disorders, and eating disorders.[2]Causes  The causes of dissociative identity disorder are theoretically linked with theinteraction of overwhelming stress, traumatic antecedents,[3] insufficientchildhood nurturing, and an innate ability to dissociate memories or experiencesfrom consciousness.[2] Prolonged child abuse is frequently a factor, with a veryhigh percentage of patients reporting documented abuse[4] often confirmed byobjective evidence.[1] The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersstates that patients with DID often report having a history of severe physical andsexual abuse. The reports of patients suffering from DID are often confirmed byobjective evidence, and the DSM notes that the abusers in those situations may beinclined to deny or distort” these acts.[1] Research has consistently shown thatDID is characterized by reports of extensive childhood trauma, usually childabuse.[5][6][7] Dissociation is recognized as a symptomatic presentation inresponse to psychological trauma, extreme emotional stress, and in associationwith emotional dysregulation and borderline personality disorder.[8] A study of 12murderers established the connection between early severe abuse and DID[9].DSM inclusionDID meets all of the guidelines for inclusion in the DSM and is supported bytaxometric research.[10] Research has established DID as a valid diagnosis.[10] Inone study, DID was found to be a genuine disorder with a constant set of corefeatures.[11]HistoryThe 19th century saw a number of reported cases of multiple personalities whichRieber estimated would be close to 100.[12]By the late 19th century there was a general realization that emotionallytraumatic experiences could cause long-term disorders which may manifest with avariety of symptoms.[13] Between 1880 and 1920, many great international medicalconferences devoted a lot of time to sessions on dissociation.[14]Starting in about 1927, there was a large increase in the number of reported casesof schizophrenia, which was matched by an equally large decrease in the number ofmultiple personality reports.[14] Bleuler also included multiple personality inhis category of schizophrenia. It was found in the 1980s that MPD patients areoften misdiagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia.[14] Multiple personalitydisorder began to emerge as a separate disorder in the 1970s when an initiallysmall number of clinicians worked to re-establish MPD as a legitimatediagnosis.[14]References1. ^ a b c d e f g American Psychiatric Association (2000-06).Diagnostic andStatistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV TR (Text Revision). Arlington, VA,USA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc..http://books.google.com/books?id=3SQrtpnHb9MC&pg=PA527&lpg=PA535&sig=25ML_7zbvvLZl6ySYCF4DomqeRU DOI:10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349. ISBN 978-0890420249.2. ^ a b c Dissociative Identity Disorder, doctor's reference. Merck.com (2005-11-01). http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec15/ch197/ch197e.html3. ^ Pearson, M.L. (1997). Childhood trauma, adult trauma, and dissociation(PDF). Dissociation 10 (1): 58–62https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/1837/Diss_10_1_9_OCR.pdf;jsessionid=A72D0913DBBF1F96D30FD98B1D8805E1?sequence=14. ^ Kluft, RP (2003). site may have a virus - use caution Current Issues inDissociative Identity Disorder (PDF). Bridging Eastern and Western Psychiatry 1  (1): 71–87. http://www.psyter.org/allegati/180/Kluft.pdf5. ^ Putnam FW, Guroff JJ, Silberman EK, Barban L, Post RM (June 1986). Theclinical phenomenology of multiple personality disorder: review of 100 recentcases . J Clin Psychiatry 47 (6): 285–93. PMID 3711025.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3711025?dopt=Abstract6. ^ Ross CA, Miller SD, Bjornson L, Reagor P, Fraser GA, Anderson G (March1991). Abuse histories in 102 cases of multiple personality disorder . Can JPsychiatry 36 (2): 97–101. PMID 2044042. The patients reported high rates ofchildhood trauma: 90.2% had been sexually abused, 82.4% physically abused, and95.1% subjected to one or both forms of child abuse....Multiple personalitydisorder appears to be a response to chronic trauma srcinating during avulnerable period in childhood. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2044042?dopt=Abstract7. ^ Boon S, Draijer N (March 1993). Multiple personality disorder in TheNetherlands: a clinical investigation of 71 patients. Am J Psychiatry 150 (3):489–94. PMID 8434668. A history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse wasreported by 94.4% of the subjects, and 80.6% met criteria for posttraumatic stressdisorder....Patients with multiple personality disorder have a stable set of coresymptoms throughout North America as well as in Europe. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8434668?dopt=Abstract8. ^ Marmer S, Fink D (1994). Rethinking the comparison of BorderlinePersonality Disorder and multiple personality disorder . Psychiatr Clin North Am17 (4): 743–71. PMID 7877901.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7877901?dopt=Abstract9. ^ Lewis, D., Yeager, C., Swica, Y., Pincus, J. and Lewis, M. (1997).Objective documentation of child abuse and dissociation in 12 murderers withdissociative identity disorder. Am J Psychiatry, 154(12):1703-10. Signs andsymptoms of dissociative identity disorder in childhood and adulthood werecorroborated independently and from several sources in all 12 cases; objectiveevidence of severe abuse was obtained in 11 cases. The subjects had amnesia formost of the abuse and underreported it. Marked changes in writing style and/orsignatures were documented in 10 cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes, onceand for all, the linkage between early severe abuse and dissociative identitydisorder. 10. ^ a b Gleaves, D.H.; May MC, Cardeña E (2001) An examination of thediagnostic validity of dissociative identity disorder. 21(4) 577-608http://leadershipcouncil.org/docs/gleaves2001.pdf11. ^ Ross, C.; Norton, G. & Fraser, G. (1989). Evidence against theiatrogenesis of multiple personality disorder (PDF). Dissociation 2 (2): 61–65.https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/1424/Diss_2_2_2_OCR.pdf?sequence=112. ^ Rieber RW (2002). The duality of the brain and the multiplicity of minds:can you have it both ways? . History of psychiatry 13 (49 Pt 1): 3–17.DOI:10.1177/0957154X0201304901. PMID 12094818.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12094818?dopt=Abstract13. ^ Borch-Jacobsen M, Brick D (2000). How to predict the past: from trauma torepression . History of Psychiatry 11: 15–35. DOI:10.1177/0957154X0001104102.14. ^ a b c d Putnam, Frank W. (1989). Diagnosis and Treatment of MultiplePersonality Disorder. New York: The Guilford Press, 351. ISBN 0-89862-177-1.Bibliography* Baer, Richard A. (2007). Switching Time: A Doctor's Harrowing Story ofTreating a Woman with 17 Personalities. [New York]: Crown. ISBN 0307382664.* Braun, B.G. (1989). Dissociation: Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 066-069: Iatrophilia andIatrophobia in the diagnosis and treatment of MPD (PDF).https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/1425/Diss_2_2_3_OCR.pdf?sequence=1  * Brown, D; Frischholz E, Scheflin A. (1999). Iatrogenic dissociativeidentity disorder - an evaluation of the scientific evidence . The Journal ofPsychiatry and Law XXVII No. 3-4 (Fall-Winter 1999): 549–637.* Gleaves, D. (July 1996). The sociocognitive model of dissociative identitydisorder: a reexamination of the evidence. Psychological Bulletin 120 (1): 42–59.DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.120.1.42. PMID 8711016. Most recent research on thedissociative disorders does not support (and in fact disconfirms) thesociocognitive model, and many inferences drawn from previous research appearunwarranted. No reason exists to doubt the connection between DID and childhoodtrauma. Treatment recommendations that follow from the sociocognitive model may beharmful because they involve ignoring the posttraumatic symptomatology of personswith DID. http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=search.displayRecord&uid=1996-01403-003* Goettmann, B. A.; Greaves, B. G., Coons M. P. (1994).Multiple personalityand dissociation, 1791-1992: a complete bibliography. Lutherville, MD: The SidranPress, 85. ISBN 0-9629164-5-5.http://boundless.uoregon.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/diss&CISOPTR=38* Kluft, R.P. (1989). Iatrogenic creation of new alter personalities (PDF).Dissociation 2 (2): 83–91.https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/1428/Diss_2_2_6_OCR.pdf?sequence=1* Underwood, Anne. Identity Crisis - What is it like to live with 17 alternateselves? A survivor of multiple personality disorder discusses the disease and thepainful integration process that made her whole. Newsweek, October 22, 2007.http://www.newsweek.com/id/57861External links* International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociationhttp://www.isst-d.org/* United States of Tara - Learn More About D.I.D. - Showtime supports theawareness for Dissociative Identity Disorderhttp://www.sho.com/site/video/brightcove/series/title.do?bcpid=1847322218&bclid=5253538001&bctid=6803420001
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