EMG Investigations Regarding Handle Size, Grip Force and Stroke Rotation In Screw Driving

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 14
26 views
PDF
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Document Description
The present study investigated the effect of handle size (35mm and 40mm), grip type (loose grip and tight grip) and supine stroke rotation (30 ? , 45 ? and 60 ? ) on electromyography i.e. EMG activity of forearm muscles for a screwing task in an experimental simulation. The eight participants performed the screw driving task for a 2 minutes duration (supination). The EMG activities of forearm muscles were recorded during this task. The muscles selected for EMG recording were FCR, FCU, FDS and ECRB muscles. The results showed that the flexor muscles were more activated than extensor muscles. Among giving conditions, 40mm handle size using loose grip with 60 ? stroke was most comfortable.
Document Share
Documents Related
Document Transcript
  • 1. Farheen Bano, Zulqernian Mallick & Abid Ali Khan International Journal of Ergonomics (IJEG), Volume (4) : Issue (1) : 2013 1 EMG Investigations Regarding Handle Size, Grip Force and Stroke Rotation In Screw Driving Farheen Bano farheenbano@gmail.com Department of Mechanical Engineering Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi-110025. India Dr. Zulqernian Mallick zmallick2002@yahoo.co.in Department of Mechanical Engineering Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi-110025. India Dr. Abid Ali Khan abida.khan@amu.ac.in Ergonomics Research Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, UP, India Abstract The present study investigated the effect of handle size (35mm and 40mm), grip type (loose grip and tight grip) and supine stroke rotation (30⁰, 45⁰ and 60⁰) on electromyography i.e. EMG activity of forearm muscles for a screwing task in an experimental simulation. The eight participants performed the screw driving task for a 2 minutes duration (supination). The EMG activities of forearm muscles were recorded during this task. The muscles selected for EMG recording were FCR, FCU, FDS and ECRB muscles. The results showed that the flexor muscles were more activated than extensor muscles. Among giving conditions, 40mm handle size using loose grip with 60⁰ stroke was most comfortable. Keywords: Screw Driving Task, Stroke Rotation, EMG. 1. INTRODUCTION Hand tools are of primary focus in most of the industrial occupations. The industries primarily concerned with high percentage of injuries as found in literature [1]. Approximately 9% hand tool- related injuries were found out of all WMSDs in 23 states of the United States. Among all hand tool injuries reported by Aghazadeh and Mital [2] 79% are incurred by the use of non-powered hand tools. Screw driver is one of the most important hand tool used in many industries for assembly tasks. Many researchers conducted experiments on screw driving task [3], [4] and [5] and pneumatic/ electric screw drivers [6], [7] and [8]. Continuous efforts are made by researchers to have comfortable design of hand tools with reduced risk of WMSDs e.g. Kong and Lowe [9] investigated the handle diameters and orientations for evaluating maximum torque, perceived comfort, muscle activity and finger force for a torquing task. In another study, Kong et al. [10] evaluated three different shapes of handles specifically for screw driving using subjective discomfort rating and finger force. Chang et al. [6] studied the operation of in-line pneumatic screw driver affected by wearing gloves and wrist support in terms of hand transmitted vibration and EMG activity of flexor digitorum muscle. Chang and Wang [7] reported increased hand-arm stress while operating electric screw driver, investigations were based on finger force and EMG activity of the flexor digitorum muscle. These are not all but many more studies have worked on designing tools such as screw driver, power drill etc. However none of the study except Bano et al. [11] considered the torquing stroke rotation as independent variable and evaluated the effect of this variable either on discomfort or on EMG. The experiments shown in literature asked
  • 2. Farheen Bano, Zulqernian Mallick & Abid Ali Khan International Journal of Ergonomics (IJEG), Volume (4) : Issue (1) : 2013 2 subjects to perform exertion at specific level of forearm angle, however, none found considering exertion for the rotation duration from starting of the stroke to the end of stroke. As far as design based on ergonomic interventions are concerned, there are studies e.g. Freund et al. [12] recommended ergonomic aids in terms of newly designed screw driver for in-line use. They have also used surface EMG activity of extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles. In general, forearm rotation was found in literature as important factor affecting performance and/or discomfort in repetitive occupational task. In the present study it was tried to investigate the combined effect of handle size of screw drivers, type of grip force and stroke rotation on the muscle activity for the screwing task. Also in this study the findings of Bano et al. [11] had to be verified. The Null hypothesis of the present study was as follows “there was no main and/or interaction effects of handle size, type of grip force and stroke rotation on EMG activity of forearm muscles”. 2. METHOD 2.1 Participants Eight male participants volunteered in this experiment. None of them were professionally user of screw driver. Their age: (µ=23years, σ=2.1years), weight: (µ=73kg, σ=6.23kg), Height: (µ=168cm, σ=4.32cm). All participants were healthy and none of them had any history of musculoskeletal injuries in the right hand. Approval was taken from ethics committee of the department to conduct this experiment on human subjects. 2.2 Experimental Design A 2 (diameter of the handle of screw driver) × 2 (grip force) × 3 (stroke rotation) full factorial design of experiment was used to record an electromyographic response. The independent variables taken in this experiment were as diameter of the handle of screw driver (35 and 40 mm), type of grip force (loose and tight grip) and stroke rotation (30⁰, 45⁰ and 60⁰). The EMG activity of four forearm muscles was recorded during the given task. The handle sizes (35mm and 40mm) were considered in line with the studies of [4], [9] and [11]. The loose grip and tight grip were taken as the type of grip force. Loose grip was defined as to hold the screw driver without applying surface pressure on the handle with torquing exertion and tight grip was considered as with surface pressure with torque on the handle during the screwing exertion [13] and [14]. Stroke rotation used in this paper was as the rotation of forearm from neutral position during one complete stroke of screw driver. The levels of stroke rotation were in line with levels of forearm rotations considered by different researchers [4], [15], [16], [17] and [18]. Khan et al. [15] used five levels of forearm rotation (neutral, 30% and 60% of the ROM in pronation and supination) in repetitive task but forearm rotation used by O’Sullivan and Gallwey [16] was 75% prone ROM, neutral, and 75% supine ROM. Ciriello et al. [4] instructed the participant to move the handle of screw driver through 90⁰ motion of screw driving task. Based on the above discussion in the present study 30⁰, 45⁰ and 60⁰as levels of the stroke rotation were chosen for the experimentation (angle of stroke rotation is explained in Figure 1).
  • 3. Farheen Bano, Zulqernian Mallick & Abid Ali Khan International Journal of Ergonomics (IJEG), Volume (4) : Issue (1) : 2013 3 Neutral forearm Supination rotation of forearm FIGURE 1: Rotation of Forearm During Screw Driving. Mogk and Keir [17] considered flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), FDS, ECR, ECU, and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) for recording EMG activities during gripping. Chang and Wang [7] evaluated the effect of the use of an in-line electric screwdriver on EMG signal of flexor digitorum muscle. Freund et al. [12] analysed the EMG activities of ECU, the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), FDS and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in a screw driving task. Kong and Lowe [9] used EMG of flexor and extensor muscles to evaluate task performance in a maximum torquing task. Therefore, in the present study, EMG activities of FCR, FCU, FDS and ECRB muscles were recorded as a response variable to investigate the performance of the screwing task. 2.3 Experimental Setup A wooden plate having 360 pre-tapped screw holes (15 rows x 24 columns, row distance=1inch, column distance =1 inch) was fixed on a wall at an adjustable height for screw driving task. Phillips head screws (24.24mm long with a head diameter of 8.1mm and pitch of 1.5mm) were chosen to be used in this task. 2.4 Task The participant was asked to tighten the screws in supine rotation (clockwise) of screw driver in such a way that the participant rotated their forearm till the assigned stroke rotation was reached then adjusted to neutral forearm for the next stroke. They continued screw driving till all the threads completely entered into the dowel. The task was performed on the vertical wooden block for 2 minutes duration as shown in Figure 2 using Phillips-head screwdriver.
  • 4. Farheen Bano, Zulqernian Mallick & Abid Ali Khan International Journal of Ergonomics (IJEG), Volume (4) : Issue (1) : 2013 4 FIGURE 2: Experimental Setup. 2.5 EMG Interfacing EMG sensors were attached to the participant as shown in Figure 3 and interfaced with the laptop through DataLINK hardware and software. The EMG signals were recorded at the sampling rate of 1024Hz using surface EMG preamplifiers (Model: SX230 EMG sensor; Make: Biometrics Ltd. UK). The pre-amplified signal of EMG was interfaced to the Laptop (HP based on Pentium Dual Core Processor) using 8 channel subject unit of DataLINK (DLK900: No. M11138 2009-09; Make: Biometrics Ltd. UK). The signals were conditioned using the filters (i.e. DC and Low frequency filters) available in the same software. The conditioned signals were recorded for further analyses. FIGURE 3: Showing EMG Sensors on Forearm Muscles. 2.6 Procedure Participant was told about the experimental procedure and risks involved in it, they were asked to give prior consent for the experiment. Initially, EMG was recorded at rest called as minimum EMG and at maximum grip with torque called maximum EMG for each forearm muscle. The electrogoniometer was attached to maintain or control the rotation of forearm. After preliminary setting, participant was asked to stand straight in front of experimental setup to perform the task. The participant gripped the screw driver in the right hand with neutral forearm and elbow flexed at
  • 5. Farheen Bano, Zulqernian Mallick & Abid Ali Khan International Journal of Ergonomics (IJEG), Volume (4) : Issue (1) : 2013 5 900 keeping feet completely on the ground. For every condition participant performed screw driving for 2 minutes duration. Then the next condition was setup in a random order (unique for each participant) with a gap of atleast 2 minutes rest between each condition. 2.7 Analysis of EMG Activities The raw data as extracted is shown in a screen shot (Figure 4). The RMS signal was obtained using the Triangle-Bartlett method of Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). Using transformations and power spectrum analyses, mean rms and median frequency were extracted from the raw signals for further analyses. The mean rms of EMG signals, obtained, were normalised for respective condition for each subject using the formula [19] as given below: NEMG (%) = FIGURE 2: The screen shot of the EMG signal of different muscles of a treatment. 3. RESULTS The data of normalised rmsEMG and regression of the values of median frequencies were further statistically analysed using SPSS. The data of mean for all participants of %normalised rmsEMG the EMG signals of forearm muscles (FCR, FCU, FDS and ECRB) with respect to experimental conditions were demonstrated in Table 1 and also presented in Figures 5. Also it was observed from Table 1 that the range of mean %normalised rmsEMG of forearm muscles was about 13 to 23%. The higher values of %normalised rmsEMG of forearm muscles was found at 40mm handle size with tight grip for all stroke rotations (30⁰, 60⁰ and 90⁰). For handle size 35mm, the mean of %normalised rmsEMG was found to be maximum at stroke rotation 90⁰ as compared to 30⁰ and 60⁰ irrespective of grip force. It was noticed that the mean of %normalised rmsEMG was found to be higher for tight grip (20.21%) compared to loose grip (16.38%), for loose grip less muscular activity was obtained. The more contribution of muscles or it can be noticed that more participation of muscles during the task was found for 40mm handle size (18.79%) compared to 35mm size (17.70%) having lesser mean value of %normalised rmsEMG voltage .of forearm muscles during the task. With respect to stroke rotation, 60⁰ had minimum %normalised rmsEMG (16.93%) of forearm muscles and 90⁰ had maximum %normalised rmsEMG (20.03%) that means
  • 6. Farheen Bano, Zulqernian Mallick & Abid Ali Khan International Journal of Ergonomics (IJEG), Volume (4) : Issue (1) : 2013 6 muscles were more activated at stroke rotation 90⁰ compared to 60⁰ stroke rotation. Although lesser muscular activity was found for handle size 35mm and loose grip with 60⁰ stroke rotation. Handle Size, Level of grip force, Stroke Rotation %Normalised EMG FCR %Normalised EMG FCU %Normalised EMG FDS %Normalised EMG ECRB Mean 35mm, LG, 30⁰ 18.36 20.41 13.44 18.60 17.70 35mm, LG, 60⁰ 19.97 12.42 11.65 11.40 13.86 35mm, LG, 90⁰ 28.02 20.19 20.00 9.15 19.34 35mm, TG, 30⁰ 22.46 10.91 14.64 19.79 16.95 35mm, TG, 60⁰ 25.29 18.45 9.81 20.14 18.42 35mm, TG, 90⁰ 21.26 17.11 18.19 25.43 20.50 40mm, LG, 30⁰ 19.09 18.57 8.89 17.33 15.97 40mm, LG, 60⁰ 21.51 11.76 11.92 8.24 13.36 40mm, LG, 90⁰ 22.84 20.38 17.55 11.42 18.05 40mm, TG, 30⁰ 28.60 25.87 16.85 12.33 20.91 40mm, TG, 60⁰ 24.03 22.98 26.90 14.43 22.08 40mm, TG, 90⁰ 21.00 19.76 21.02 27.68 22.36 Mean 22.70 18.23 15.91 16.33 TABLE 1: %Normalised RMS EMG for forearm muscles at all conditions of the experiment. Further on the data multi-variant analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to identify the effect of independent variables (handle size, grip type and stroke rotation) on EMG activity of four muscles (FCR, FCU, FDS, ECRB). The result showed no significant effect of any of the independent variables on %normalised rmsEMG of forearm muscles, that does not mean that there was no effect but further investigations are required. Handle Size, Level of grip force, Stroke Rotation Slope of MF FCR Slope of MF FCU Slope of MF FDS Slope of MF ECRB 35mm, LG, 30⁰ -.0225 -.0350 -.0963 -.0100 35mm, LG, 60⁰ -.0413 .0213 -.0488 -.0213 35mm, LG, 90⁰ -.0613 -.0825 -.0650 -.0325 35mm, TG, 30⁰ -.0400 -.0438 -.0463 -.0150 35mm, TG, 60⁰ -.0650 -.0063 .0363 -.0313 35mm, TG, 90⁰ -.0725 -.1150 -.0688 -.0438 40mm, LG, 30⁰ -.0113 -.0225 -.0350 -.0350 40mm, LG, 60⁰ -.0288 .0113 -.0675 -.0450 40mm, LG, 90⁰ -.0213 -.0463 -.0025 -.0550 40mm, TG, 30⁰ -.0150 .0213 -.0238 .0050 40mm, TG, 60⁰ -.0300 .0038 -.0400 -.0488 40mm, TG, 90⁰ -.025 -.1788 -.0375 -.0800 TABLE 2: Slope of Median Frequency of all muscles for all conditions. The calculated data of Slope of Median frequency (i.e. obtained by applying linear regression on median frequency) was shown in Table 2 and also in Figure 6. Here fatigued of the muscles were relatively calculated in terms of decrement in the median frequency of EMG signal (i.e. negative shift of power spectrum of the signal). The muscle FCR was fatigued at all experimental condition, maximum fatigue was observed for handle size 35mm & tight grip with stroke rotation 90⁰. It was noticed that using handle size 35mm for loose grip with 30⁰ stroke rotation, FDS muscle was fatigued (-0.0963 as slope of median frequency) during the task. FDS muscle was found fatigued at all conditions except condition i.e. handle size 35mm with tight grip and 60⁰ stroke rotation. FCU and ECRB muscles were highest fatigued for the handle size 40mm with tight grip and stroke rotation 90⁰. The condition, 40mm handle size at 90⁰ stroke rotation with tight grip was found highly fatigued. At this condition all muscles were found fatigued but FCU & ECRB
  • 7. Farheen Bano, Zulqernian Mallick & Abid Ali Khan International Journal of Ergonomics (IJEG), Volume (4) : Issue (1) : 2013 7 muscles were highly fatigued among all other conditions. The relatively most discomfort condition among all the test condition were at handle size 40mm with tight grip and stroke rotation 90⁰; handle size 35mm with tight grip and stroke rotation 90⁰; handle size 35mm with loose grip and stroke rotation 90⁰; handle size 35mm with loose grip and stroke rotation 30⁰ (Figure 5 and Figure 6).
  • 8. Farheen Bano, Zulqernian Mallick & Abid Ali Khan International Journal of Ergonomics (IJEG), Volume (4) : Issue (1) : 2013 8 FIGURE 5: Bar diagram showing %normalised EMG of all muscles for all conditions.
  • 9. Farheen Bano, Zulqernian Mallick & Abid Ali Khan International Journal of Ergonomics (IJEG), Volume (4) : Issue (1) : 2013 9 Figure 6: Bar chart showing Slope of Median Frequency of all muscles for all conditions.
  • 10. Farheen Bano, Zulqernian Mallick & Abid Ali Khan International Journal of Ergonomics (IJEG), Volume (4) : Issue (1) : 2013 10 4. DISCUSSION The comparison of present study with reference to literature reviewed is presented in Table 3. Author's Name Purpose Ciriello et al. 2002 [4] To find out the maximal acceptable torque for screw driving task for different frequencies 15, 20, 25 motions /min. Habes and Grant, 1997 [5] For a simulated screw driving task maximum torque and EMG activities were investigated. Dempsey et al. 2004 [3] The effect of work height, workpeice orientation, gender and screwdriver type (phillips or flat head) were observed for productivity and wrist deviation. Freund et al. 2000 [12] 4 different combinations of screw driver and ergonomics aids were evaluated and found that hand support and the sleeve had positive effect on subjective perception of exertion and surface texture response. Kong et al. 2008 [10] Screw driving task was investigated for 3 longitudinal shape, 4 lateral shapes and 2 surface material using subjective discomfort, number of screw-tightening rotations, screw-insertion time, axial screw driving force and finger contact forces. Bano et al. 2012 [11] In this study the effects of handle size (35mm and 40mm), grip type (tight and loose) and Stroke rotation (30°, 60°and 90°) on subjective Discomfort rating and productivity were evaluated for screw driving task. Present study In the present study the effects of handle size (35mm and 40mm), grip type (tight and loose) and Stroke rotation (30°, 60°and 90°) for screw driving on EMG signals of forearm muscles were investigated. TABLE 3: Comparison of present study with the previous studies. Electromyography (EMG) has been the major quantitative measure of muscular effort during the task. Many studies have used surface electromyography (EMG) as a tool to find the effect of task on discomfort using different parameters of EMG signals for example, normalised root mean square (RMS) of the EMG signals [5], [9], [16], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27] and [28]; amplitude of the EMG signal [17], [29] and [30]; Median Frequency of the EMG signal [20] and [30]; and maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) [31]. Other studies have also used surface electromyography as a means to study the effects of torques and reaction forces acting on the hand during the task [32] and [33]. In line with these studies the EMG signal recorded was summarised into output parameters such as normalised RMS and Slope of Median frequency to have relative knowledge about exertion and fatigue in forearm muscles. In a previous study conducted by Bano et al. [11] evaluated the effects of handle size, level of grip type and stroke rotation on perceived discomfort score and productivity for repetitive screwdriving task. The results of that study showed that the most comfortable holding posture of screw driver was handle size 35mm with loose grip at 60⁰ stroke rotation. Also they achieved higher discomfort with low productivity when holding the screw driver with tight grip and high productivity with low discomfort for loose grip. Stroke rotation was significant on discomfort score however relatively high productive work was achieved at 60⁰ and 90⁰ stroke rotation as compared to 300 stroke rotation. The present study was an experiment to find out whether the EMG a
  • Similar documents
    Search Related
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks