Eric Lohr- Nationalizing the Russian Empire- the Campaign Against Enemy Aliens During World War I

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In this compelling study of the treatment of enemy minorities in the Russian Empire during the First World War, Eric Lohr uncovers a dramatic story of mass deportations, purges, expropriations, and popular violence. An imperial campaign initially aimed at restricting foreign citizens rapidly spun out of control, sweeping up Russian subjects of German, Jewish, and Muslim backgrounds and driving roughly a million civilians from one part of the empire to another, becoming one of the largest cases of forced migration in history to that time. Because foreigners and diaspora minorities were prominent among entrepreneurial and landowning elites, the campaign against them also became an explosive element in class and national tensions on the eve of the 1917 revolutions. During the war, the imperial regime dropped its ambivalence about Russian nationalism and embraced unprecedented and radical policies that nationalized the economy, the land, and even the population. The core idea of the campaign--that the country needed to free itself from the domination of foreigners, internal enemies, and the exploitative world economic system--later became a central feature of the Soviet revolutionary model.
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  nationalizing the russian empirerussian research center studies, 94 Published under the auspices of theDavis Center for Russian andEurasian Studies, Harvard University    Nationalizing the Russian Empire  The Campaign against Enemy Aliensduring World War I ERIC LOHR  harvard university press Cambridge, Massachusetts,and London, England 2003  Copyright © 2003 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College All rights reservedPrinted in the United States of America  Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Lohr, Eric.Nationalizing the Russian Empire : the campaign against enemy aliensduring World War I / Eric Lohr.p. cm. — (Russian Research Center studies ; 94)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-674-01041-8 (alk. paper)1. Russian—Ethnic relations—History—20th century. 2. Minorities—Crimes against—Russia—History—20th century. 3. Political persecution—Russia—History—20th century. 4. Forced migration—Russia—History—20th century. 5. Minorities—Government policy—Russia—History—20th century. 6. Minorities—Relocation—Russia—History—20th century.7. World War, 1914–1918—Russia. I. Title. II. Series.DK34.R9L64 2003940.3 Ј 086 Ј 91—dc21 2002191913  Contents   Acknowledgments ix Introduction 1 1 Nationalist Challenges, Imperial Dilemmas 10 2 The Moscow Riots 31 3 Nationalizing the Commercial andIndustrial Economy  55  4 Nationalizing the Land 84 5 Forced Migration 121 Conclusion 166   Appendix: Wartime Leaders 175  Notes 177   Archival Sources 229 Index 235 
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