Examville.com - Physiology - Lymphatic System

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  Examville is a global education community where users like you canconnect and interact with other students and teachers from aroundthe world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside andoutside the classroom.All you need is an email address and a password to get started. JOIN US FOR FREE: http://www.examville.com © Examville.com, LLC June 2009  LYMPHATIC SYSTEM The lymphatic system communicates between the blood and tissue fluids. Thelymphatic system consists of:1.   Lymph capillaries2.   Lymph vessels3.   The thoracic duct4.   The right lymphatic duct5.   Lymph nodes6.   The other lymphatic tissue Lymph capillaries are small fine capillary vessels within the tissue spaces whichhave to drain water and particles from the tissue spaces. The lymph capillariesare more permeable than blood capillaries. Capillaries join together to formlarger lymphatic vessels.The fluid which flows inside the lymphatic capillaries and vessels is known as Lymph. The lymph is returned to the venous blood through two large lymphatic vessels,namely thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct, which opens into the left andright subclavian veins respectively. The lymph vessels have numerous nodularbodies like the beads in the strings. These beads are known as lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are the bean or kidney shaped bead found in the lymphaticvessels.They vary in size from as small as pin head to as large as size of an almond. Eachnode has concave surface called hilum. At the hilum the blood vessels supplyingthe node enter ad leave. The lymph enters the gland by afferent vessels andleaves the nodes by efferent vessels.The lymph nodes are arranged in deep and superficial groups.The lymph nodes lie in axilla, neck, abdomen, and groin. FUNCTIONS 1.   Lymph nodes filter the lymph leaving behind the particles which wouldnot normally be found in serum.2.   The lymph nodes provide an effective barrier against the spread ofnoxious particulate matter.  3.   Lymph nodes are involved in the production of lymphocytes andantibodies. SPLEEN Spleen is the largest lymphatic organ of the body. It is slightly oval in shape.The spleen lies in the left hypochondriac region of the abdominal cavity betweenfundus and diaphragm. It varies in size but usually it is about 12 cm long, 7 cmwide and 2.5 cm thick. The spleen is covered by fibroelastic capsule whichextends into the organ to form the trabeculae. The cellular element of spleen isknown as splenic pulp.    FUNCTION 1.   Phagocytosis: Spleen destroys the worn out RBC , bacteria and platelets.2.   Haemopoietic organ: Spleen is involved in the production of small mountof RBC in the fetus.3.   Reservoir of RBC: Spleen sores blood which it liberates during conditionof stress.4.   Formation of Antibodies and Anti toxins: Spleen provide defense againstinfections by producing antibodies and antitoxins. VARIOUS LYMPHOID TISSUES OF THE BODY 1.   Lymph nodes2.   Tonsils3.   Payer's patches4.   Spleen5.   Thymus LYMPH The fluid within the lymph capillaries and vessels is known as lymphThe lymph is similar in composition to blood but concentration of variousconstituents is different. The lymph has no blood platelets but has lymphocytes. FUNCTIONS 1.   The lymph gland functions as filters for microbes.2.   Lymph gland provides lymphocytes to the blood.3.   Lymph transports nutrients and oxygen from blood to the tissues andremoves waste products from the tissues to the blood.4.   The lacteals help in the absorption of fats and carry it to systemiccirculation. THYMUS Thymus gland is situated in the upper part of the mediastinum behind thesternum. At birth its weight is about 12 gm, and then it increases in size andpuberty it weighs between 30-40 gm s. And then shrinks again. The thymus is a
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