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GAROSHI17@YAHOO.COM
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  1. Regulations to be followed when dissecting: Safety glasses, latex gloves, a lab coat,rinse the specimen carefully, and use the sharp instruments with caution.(1)What general terminology (list & define) should one be familiar with before beginning a cat dissection?Lateral-Towards the sideMedial-toward the midlineProximal- Near or toward the point of reference( e.g. midline of body).Distal- away from the point of reference( e.g. midline of body).Dorsal- toward the back Ventral- Toward the bellyAnterior (Cranial)- Towards the headPosterior (Caudal)-Towards the tailSagittal plane- divides the body or organs into left and right portions. A mid-saggittal section has equal right and left halves.Median Sagittal plane- divides the body into equal right and left halvesTransverse Plane- Perpendicular to the long axis. All sections cut along transverse planes are cross sections.Frontal Plane- divides the body into dorsal and ventral portions. Unit one- External Features- 10 points (1)List two interesting observations/discoveries. Two interesting discoveries that wemade from contemplating our cat was as followed: The cat was skinned and didnot have a tail.(2)Define: Vibrissae, Pinnae, ToriVibrissae- long hairs around its eyes stout, mouth and cheeks.Pinnae- external ear structuresTori- found on the undersurface of the foot are epidermal thickenings calledfriction pads. Unit two- The Skeleton- 29 points (1)#2 Describe the movement allowed by the axis-to-atlas joint and the atlas-to-skull joint. The movement from axis-to-atlas is rotation of the neck and atlas-to-skull isnodding.# 4 Give the articulating surfaces for the following forelimb joints: shoulder,elbow, wrist. The Scapula of the cat articulates with the humerus bone. The elbowarticulates with the radius and the ulna. The wrist articulates with the metacarpals.#5 Give the articulating surfaces for the following hind limb joints: hip, knee,ankle. The hip articulates with the femur. The knee articulates with the fibula. Theankle articulates with the phalanges.(2) Explain the differences between the axial and appendicular skeleton in terms of Structures and functions. The axial skeleton balances the head at the end of theVertebral column. The axial consist of the skull, mandible, vertebral column, ribs  And sternum. The appendicular is the pectoral girdle, forelimbs, pelvic girdle andHind limbs and also helps in movement. Unit Three- The Muscles (& Endocrine/Lymphatic Systems)- 55 points (1)List two interesting observations/discoveries.Our cat has four layers of muscles and it’s interesting how different colors can beon different layers of muscles.(2)Define: tendon, aponeurosis, srcin, insertionTendon- A collagenous band that connects a skeletal muscle to an element of theskeleton.Aponeurosis- A broad tendinous sheet that may serve as the srcin or insertion of a skeletal muscle.Origin- In a skeletal muscle, the point of attachment which does not change position when the muscle contracts; usually defined in terms of movements fromthe anatomical position.Insertion- A point of attachment of a muscle; the end that is easily movable.(3)(4) Define: Superficial fascia- Outer layers of fibrous tissue covering and separating  Muscles.(5) Endocrine System/Lymphatic System- Explain the purpose of both thyroid glandAnd the lymph node.The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, andhow sensitive the body should be to other hormones. It is connected to the pituitarygland which produces the hormones regulating homeostasis needed by your body. The lymph node: The lymph node is an important part of your  immune system . Your lymph node filters fluids, catching viruses, bacteria ,and other unknown materials. Thenyour unique white blood cells destroy the unwanted materials.(6) Describe how the endocrine system works as one of the two major controllingsystems in the body. Be sure to discuss its means of communication, length of effect, andresponse time. In addition, outline an example of a feedback mechanism involving theendocrine system.(7) Explain the interrelationship between the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. Inaddition, list the main structures of the lymphatic system and their function Unit Four- The Digestive System- 85 points (1)Answer the Questions & Activities- #3#3 Cut open the stomach and describe its internal appearance.(2)List three interesting observations/discoveries.(3)Diagram the Digestive System
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