Lymphatic System Diseases

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DIPLOMA PHARMACY- PH 110 MICROBIOLOGY - PHC 122 DISEASES CAUSED BY PHATOGENIC MICROORGANISM IN LYMPHATIC SYSTEM NAME : SYAKIRAH BINTI RASHID REDZA. STUDENT’S ID : 2010555067. GROUP : 1 M INTRODUCTION Lymphatic System Diseases The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs, which forms an important part of the body's immune system. Any malfunction or inflammation of this complex network can lead to different lymphatic system diseases or disorders. The lymphatic system comprises of l
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     DIPLOMA PHARMACY- PH 110 MICROBIOLOGY - PHC 122 DISEASES CAUSED BY PHATOGENICMICROORGANISM IN LYMPHATIC SYSTEM NAME : SYAKIRAH BINTI RASHID REDZA.  STUDENT’S ID : 2010555067. GROUP : 1 MINTRODUCTIONLymphatic System Diseases The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs, which forms an important part of the body's immune system. Any malfunction or inflammation of this complex network can leadto different lymphatic system diseases or disorders.The lymphatic system comprises of lymph vessels, lymph nodes and lymph and isconsidered to be the second circulatory system in the body. The system circulates lymph aroundthe body through lymphatic vessels (which are different from blood vessels) and lymph nodes.Lymph basically contains white blood cells that defend the body against germs and infections.Lymph nodes are oval or bean-shaped group of tissues that are located along the lymph vesselsand abundantly found in the neck, armpit, groin, and around the large blood vessels in theabdomen and chest. It is the lymph nodes and spleen where these white blood cells (produced bythe bone marrow and thymus) fight infection which improve the body'simmune system. Moreonlymph nodes: locations and functions.  Functions of Lymphatic System The main function of the lymphatic system isto maintain the fluid and protein balance inthe body. As blood travels through the arteriesand veins, nearly 10% of the fluid filtered bythe capillaries, along with vital proteins, getstrapped in the tissues of the body.This loss of fluid would rapidly become lifethreatening if the lymphatic system does not  collect this fluid and return it to the circulatory system. With the network of vessels and nodesthat transport and filter lymph fluid containing antibiotics and white blood cells, the lymphaticsystem is considered to be the first line of defense against any infection or diseases frominvading microorganisms. Lymph vessels in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract absorb fatsfrom food and impacts disorders like excessive obesity, diabetes, etc, caused by abnormal fat andcarbohydrate accumulation and metabolism. More on lymphatic system functions. Diseases of the Lymphatic System The lymphatic system, like other parts of the body, is also susceptible to a variety of diseasesand disorders which are given below: Lymphedema : One of the most prevalent lymphatic disorder is lymphatic insufficiency, or lymphedema which occurs due to an accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the interstitial tissue.This results in swelling in the arms, legs and sometimes in other parts of the body. The severityof this disorder varies from extremely mild complications to a disfiguring, painful and celluliteinfections deep in skin. If not treated, the skin eventually becomes fibrotic (thickening of the skinand subcutaneous tissues) with loss of normal structure, functionality and mobility. The twotypes of lymphedema are: ã Primary Lymphedema: It is an inherited condition that occurs due to impaired or missinglymphatic vessels. It affects from one to as many as four limbs and even other body parts,including internal organs. It can exhibit at birth, develop with the onset of puberty or occur in adulthood, with no apparent causes. ã Secondary Lymphedema: The disorder is basically acquired regional lymphaticinsufficiency which occurs due to any trauma, infection or surgery that disrupts thelymphatic vessels or results in the loss of lymph nodes. More on lymphedema treatment. Filariasis : Filariasis is another lymphatic system disorder that occurs from a parasitic-causedinfection causing lymphatic insufficiency, and in some cases predisposes elephantiasis(thickening of the skin and underlying tissues especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts). Lymphoma : Lymphomais a medical term used for a group of cancers that srcinate in the lymphatic system. Lymphomas usually begin with malignant transformation of the lymphocytes(white blood cells) in lymph nodes or bunch of lymphatic tissue in organs like the stomach or   intestines. Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are two major categories inLymphoma, characterized by enlargement of lymph nodes, usually present in the neck.Symptoms of lymphoma mainly include chronic fatigue, weak immune function, weight loss,night sweats and pain after drinking alcohol. Lymphadenopathy : Lymphadenopathy is a lymphatic disorder in which the lymph nodes become swollen or enlarged, due an infection. For example, swollen lymph nodes in the neck may occur as a result of a throat infection. Lymphadenitis : Also known as adenitis, Lymphadenitis is an inflammation of the lymphnode due to a bacterial infection of the tissue in the node causing swelling, reddening, andtenderness of the skin overlying the lymph node. Splenomegaly : Splenomegaly or enlarged spleen is another lymphatic system disorder, thatdevelops due to a viral infection like mononucleosis. Tonsillitis : Of many other lymphatic system disorders, tonsillitis is another disease caused byan infection of the tonsils, the lymphoid tissues present in the back of the mouth at the top of thethroat. These lymphoid tissues help filter out bacteria and when infected, they become swollenand inflamed, leading to a sore throat, fever, and difficulty and pain while swallowing.HIV/AIDSand inflammatory and auto-immune diseases likerheumatoid arthritis,systemic lupus erythematosis(SLE), scleroderma, Wegener's granulomatosis, etc., are directly impacted by thelymphatic system. Hence, lymphatic insufficiency of the internal organs and unhealthy lifestylescan eventually lead to any of the aforementioned lymphatic system diseases.
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