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Advertising Process Model Bhavin Raval Sept 13, 2010 GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICALUNIVERSITY The FCB Model of Advertising Strategy An admired paper by Richard Vaughn (1980, see also Vaughn 1986) researched how advertising works, and how best to establish communications objectives. This introduced the Foote, Cone, Belding (FCB) strategy matrix, suggesting that advertising works differently depending on the product involved. Vaughn's work allows advertisers to select the communi
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  Advertising Process Model Bhavin Ravalravalbhavin@ymail.comSept 13, 2010 GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICALUNIVERSITY  The FCB Model of Advertising Strategy An admired paper by Richard Vaughn (1980, see also Vaughn 1986) researched how advertising works, andhow best to establish communications objectives. This introduced the Foote, Cone, Belding (FCB) strategymatrix, suggesting that advertising works differently depending on the product involved. Vaughn's work allows advertisers to select the communication method based on the type of product they are advertising, andthe attitudes that consumers are likely to have towards the product. Vaughn (1980) suggests: Not all advertising works in the same way. Sometimes communication of key information and salient emotionwill be needed to get a sale; at other times, consumers will need one, but not both; and often, [a purchase] mayoccur with little or no information and emotion. The purpose of strategy planning is to identify theinformation, emotion or action leverage for a particular product, build the appropriate advertising model andthen execute it.These differences are summarized in the popular FCB Matrix reproduced below: Thinking FeelingHighInvolvement LowInvolvement The matrix dividesadvertisingstrategy into two dimensions based on thinking versus feeling, and low involvement versus high involvement.Vaughn points out  this suggests there are purchase decisions where thinking is most involved and otherswhere feeling dominated; there are situations that require more involvement and those that require less. The model is powerful because it accommodates different versions of the learn-feel-do sequence and suggestsdifferent advertising strategies for each of the four quadrants.This grid delineates four primary advertising strategies - informative , affective , habitual and satisfaction - with their most appropriate traditional and variant hierarchy-of-effects models. Vaughn (1986,also Rossiter et al. 1991) identified 250 product categories for recently purchased products on the basis of involvement and the think - feel dimensionality. Representative product categories are illustrated below: Quadrant 1 - High involvement / Thinking (Informative) This quadrant implies that a large amount of information is necessary because of the importance of the product. Many major purchases qualify, (cars, homes, electronic equipment), and these are likely to includealmost any product which needs to convey what it is, its function, price and availability. The basic strategymodel is to adopt the Learn - Feel - Do sequence where information is designed to build attitudinal acceptanceand subsequent purchase. Vaughn (1980) suggests,  consumers may be thought of as thinkers. Creatively,specific information and demonstration are possibilities. Long copy format and reflective, involving media 1.InformativeLearn – Feel - Do2.AffectiveFeel – Learn -Do3.Habit FormationDo – Learn - Feel4.Self SatisfactionDo – Feel - Learn  may be necessary to get through with key points of consumer interest . Quadrant 2 - High involvement / Feeling (Affective) This product decision has high involvement but requires less specific information, therefore and attitude or feeling towards the product is more important. This is a psychological model, because the importance of the product is connected to the consumers' self esteem. Perfume, expensive watches, and sports cars are productexamples that might fall into this quadrant. The advertising strategy requires emotional involvement on the part of the consumers so that they become connected with the product being advertised and subsequently become feelers . Therefore, the proposed model is Feel - Learn - Do. Vaughn (1980) suggests Creatively,executional impact is a possible goal, while media considerations suggest dramatic print exposure or image  broadcast specials. Quadrant 3 - Low involvement / Thinking (Doer) Products in this category (including many common household items such as razors, insect repellant, andhousehold cleaners) involve little thought and a tendency to form buying habits for convenience. The hierarchymodel is a Do - Learn - Feel pattern suggesting that simply inducing trial (through coupons or samples) canoften generate subsequent purchases more efficiently than undifferenting copy points , leading in turn toincreased brand loyalty. According to Vaughn (1980), the most effective creative strategy is to stimulate areminder for the product. Quadrant 4 - Low involvement / Feeling (Self-satisfaction) This product decision is emotional but requires little involvement, and is reserved for those products thatsatisfy personal taste (for example, cigarettes, candy, beer or snack food). This is a Do - Feel - Learn modelwhere imagery and quick satisfaction are involved, and the consumer is considered a reactor whose interestwill be hard to hold. Vaughn (1980) argues that the creative objective is to get attention with some sort of consistency, and suitable methods may include billboards, point-of-sale or newspaper advertising.This paper will now focus on a several advertisements and analyze them from the perspective of the twoadvertising models discussed. Empirical examination of advertisements This paper now focuses on evaluating several different advertisements. Each brand will be discussed generally,and each ad will be described briefly before discussing how the three advertising strategies previouslydiscussed may affect the proposed marketing communication. When possible, the advertising agency thatcreated the spot will also be identify Scottish Widows - Television spot   Appearing throughout the UK from January to March 2002: Agency: Incepta - Citigate (UK) Please see file Scottish_Widows_High_40sec for a copy of this advertisement  Scottish Widows is an 180 year old Edinburgh, Scotland based financial service company that offers a rangeof insurance and investment products to its 1.6 million policy holders. In 1999, Scottish Widows was purchased by Lloyds-TSB (LSE:LLOY) for £7bn (US$11.2bn), making it the UK's second largest provider of insurance and pensions after the Prudential. At the time of its purchase, Scottish Widows had combined pensions and life insurance worth £80bn under management; an area where Lloyds-TSB is relatively weak.Advertisements for the brand are well recognized throughout the UK through the continuing portrayal of the Scottish Widow ; a living logo, and one of Britain's most 1 recognizable financial icons . The firm's website ( suggests the Scottish widowwas created as an icon that countered all the negative values associated with the word widow by presentingthem as positives - strength, reliability, integrity, innovation and heritage. All marketing communication for the firm centres on this icon (see sample below) . The ad The television ad opens with a lighthouse on the coast in a terrible storm and depicts the Scottish widowentering the lighthouse, climbing the stairs, and ensuring the light is on and guiding those who need it. Thevoice-over accompanying the spot is Even in the most turbulent of times, Scottish Widow has stood firm,using its strength, experience, and investment expertise to guide its customers. Year after year after year.Scottish Widows. Looking good for your money .The spot communicates the themes of strength, experience, dependability, trustworthiness, and reliability,while not communicating any of the traditional benefits associated with a particular financial product. Thecommercial suggests that Scottish Widows is the sort of company anyone would like to have his or her pensionor life insurance with - a company that is strong, dependable, reliable and financially secure. The message of the commercial, therefore, is that Scottish Widows is stable, strong, trustworthy, and reliable. FCB Grid The FCB grid places financial services companies (including those providing life insurance, credit cards, andso on) in quadrant 1: high involvement, informative (thinker). The FCB model suggests products in thiscategory adopt a Learn Æ Feel Æ Do model of behaviour, and recommend communicating specific productinformation and/or demonstrating as creative possibilities. The media should have a long copy format touchingon key points of consumer interest.Like the AIDA model, quadrant one of the FCB typically suggests thoughtful communication that emphasizeskey product attributes and demonstrates product value. This is inconsistent with the advertising strategy andadvertising execution adopted by Scottish Widows for this particular spot. High involvement / informative products encourage the use of copy intensive advertising, such as another Scottish Widows ad for high income bonds - ISA's (individual savings' accounts) that clearly provides detailed information (please see file Scottish_widows_high_income_bond for a copy of this ad). This ad is more consistent with the FCB strategysince it communicates a significant amount of product information including annual return, investment levels,and bond ratings.
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