Operating System

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COURSE OUTLINE: COMPUTER COMPONENTS: Functioning and interaction. Hardware and software concepts Needs for operating system INTRODUCTION TO DOS: Internal and external commands. Command lines parameters Directory structure in DOS File names and extensions. FUNDAMENTAL FILE OPERATION: Types of processing. Multiprocessing and multiprogramming. DISK DRIVE: Formatting the disk. Booting process in DOS. Advanced file concept in DOS. PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF DOS AND UNIX CONCEPT OF PROCESSES.. Interrupts. I
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  COURSE OUTLINE:COMPUTER COMPONENTS:Functioning and interaction.Hardware and software concepts Needs for operating systemINTRODUCTION TO DOS:Internal and external commands.Command lines parametersDirectory structure in DOSFile names and extensions.FUNDAMENTAL FILE OPERATION:Types of processing.Multiprocessing and multiprogramming.DISK DRIVE:Formatting the disk.Booting process in DOS.Advanced file concept in DOS.PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF DOS AND UNIXCONCEPT OF PROCESSES..Interrupts.IO COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES.Memory usage reallocation.Types of user interface.BATCH FILES IN DOS:Autoexec.bat and Config.sys.Dos environment.Redirection operation.ADVANCED FILE MANUPULATION IN DOS.Process states schedulingProcess scheduling techniques.Process control structureProcess management in UNIXMEMORY MANAGEMENT:MEMORY ALLOCATION METHODSPaging and segmentationConcepts of virtual memoryVirtual paging and segmentationMemory management in DOS and UNIX.Memory protection  C OMPUTER    The word computer has been srcinated from the word compute means calculations.Computer is an electronic machine there are three steps in computerized system. 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Output. D a t a: Draw facts and figures is called data. I NFORMATION : Processed form of data is called information.Computer is divided into two parts. 1.Hardware.2.Software. Hardware: Physical equipment of the computer, Hardware devices may be electronic,magnetic or mechanical etc. Any thing having physical existence is called as hardware.Hardware is divided into three steps 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Output. I n p u t: Keyboard ,mouse, light pen, scanner, microphone, digitizer etc. Processing: CPU (central processing unit) processor ,floppy drives, hard disk, magnetic tape, CD drive, RAM, ROM,EPROM, POWER SUPPLY etc.   Ram: Random access memory (temporary storage device) all the variables defined is stored in ram.Memory that can be accessed randomly.Variable a = 10 value.  ROM: Read only memory not accessible.  EPROM: Erasable programmable read only memory it is used in networks only.Also called boot ROM. In computers ASCII codes are allotted to all. ASCII code for a is 6564 32 16 8 4 2 11000001& Will be written (1000001) 2.Bit is the smallest unit in the computer.8 bits = 1 byte.1024 bytes= 1 KB1024 KB= 1 MB1024 MB= 1 GB1024 GB= 1 Triga byte. Software: anything having logical existence is called as software.  Software: two categories 1. System programs2. Application program S YSTEM   PROGRAM : Programs which control the internal operations of the computer system, e.g.operating systems. Such programs which deals with (languages and the operating system) the computer operations. A PPLICATION   PROGRAMS : Programs which are used for specific purposes, e.g. word processors,spread-sheets etc. They need system software to use hardware resources.  Such a program that deal the problems of the user for example words lotus etc.In case of languages we have to do all the work by ourselves in the case of packages predefined functionsare thereLanguages are divided into three levels higher middle low level languages1) High level languages are Basic, Pascal, Cobol etc.2) Middle level languages are c family.3) Low level languages are assembly language.  Packages: 1. Customized packages. Customized: for specific organization. G ENERALIZED : for all the users. Word lotus excels WordStar etc. O PERATING   SYSTEM : Operating system controls the execution of other programs. It consists of instructions for the processor to manage other system resources. Two importantfunctions of the operating system are:1.Provide interface between the user and the hardware resources.2.Hide details of hardware from the application programmer.Operating systems consists of the following:1.Control Programs: Scheduler, I/O control system etc.2.Service Programs: Compilers, Utility programs etc.Common examples of operating systems are: DOS, UNIX, OS/2, VMS, etc. A layer of software which provide the interface between hard ware and user.A software which makes hardware usable. For example. OS/2, CP/M, DOS, UNIX, XENIX, Windows 95and Windows NT.LAN: dos based environment.Unix: for personnel computers.XENIX: for networks.Operating system is also known as resource manager 
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