Progress in the Implementation of the European Charter for Small Enterprises in the Western Balkans-2009 SME Policy-Part I

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PART I Policy Findings by Charter Dimension 39 Dimension 1 Education and Training for Entrepreneurship Dimension 1 Education and Training for Entrepreneurship 1.1 Introduction With increasing unease as to the effects of the global economic crisis on transition economies, it will be important for governments to focus on long-term growth challenges which ensure that achievements to date are built upon. Education is a long-term challenge, increasingly recognised as the bedrock of sustainabl
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  39 PART IPolicy Findings byCharter Dimension  Dimension 1Education andTraining forEntrepreneurship  Education and Trainingfor Entrepreneurship Dimension 1 42 1.1 Introduction Withincreasinguneaseastotheeffectsoftheglobaleconomic crisis on transition economies, it will beimportantforgovernmentstofocusonlong-termgrowthchallenges which ensure that achievements to date arebuilt upon. Education is a long-term challenge,increasingly recognised as the bedrock of sustainablegrowth and competitiveness. 1 This recognition isgenerating new policy interest in the potential of entrepreneurship education and training orentrepreneurial learning 2 for improving productivity,innovationandoveralleconomicgrowth.Whileparticularemphasis has been given to the efficiency model forentrepreneurial learning (contribution to compet-itiveness), arguments in favour of the equity model(contribution to socio-economic inclusion) are gainingground.The equity model considers self-employment asa viable alternative to joblessness. 3 Theoretical andempirical support is strong for both models 4 and iscaptured within the EU Lisbon Strategy for Growth and JobstowardswhichthecountriesoftheWesternBalkanswill increasingly need to evolve given EU accessionaspirations. 5 The first Charter report of entrepreneurial learningin theWestern Balkans in 2007 concluded that efforts topromoteentrepreneuriallearningwerehamperedbypoorunderstandingofwhy and howentrepreneuriallearningshould be promoted, particularly within compulsoryeducation. Secondly, the assessment found that policydevelopments, where they existed, were scattered. Itrecommended a more concerted effort by all players toensure coherence and consensus as to how a moreintegrated lifelong entrepreneurial learning frameworkcould be shaped.A third issue from the 2007 report wasthat the lion’s share of the initiative in entrepreneuriallearning was donor-driven and developed outsidemainstreameducationcurricula,withevidenceofprojectactivity often dissipating upon withdrawal of donorsupport.This chapter considers the developments in theregion since the 2007 report and closes withrecommendations to bring forward developments inentrepreneurial learning. 1.2 Assessment framework The 2009 report involved five indicators: the policyframework for lifelong entrepreneurial learning;entrepreneurship promotion in lower secondaryeducation; entrepreneurship promotion in uppersecondary education; dissemination of good practice inentrepreneuriallearning;andnon-formalentrepreneuriallearning 6 . Each of the five indicators is considered as aseparate unit in the assessment, but taken as a wholethe indicators have aggregate value in providing acomprehensivereviewofentrepreneuriallearningintheregion.The focus of the assessment differs in two respectsfrom the 2007 exercise.Firstly,following feedback on theuseofthe2007indicatorpackage,threeindicators(policyframework,primaryeducationandsecondaryeducation)were subject to further elaboration: each of the srcinalindicators was disaggregated into more meaningful andmeasurableindicators.Secondly,the2007“pilotprojects”indicator was substituted by a “good practice” indicatorgeared more to encourage exchange and co-operation inentrepreneurial learning.Based on the experience of the
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