TCVN 2737-1995-Loads and Effects

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VIETNAM STANDARD TCVN 2737:1995 Loads and Effects – Design standard 1. 1.1. 1.2. The scope of application The standard stipulates loads and effects used for the design of construction, foundation bed of house and projects. The standard does not state loads and effects caused by railway traffic, road traffic, wave, stream flow, goods loading and unloading, earthquake, storm, temperature, a motive power of machinery and means of transportation…However, those loads and effect are stipulated by th
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  VIETNAM STANDARD TCVN 2737:1995 285 Loads and Effects – Design standard 1.   The scope of application 1.1.   The standard stipulates loads and effects used for the design of construction,foundation bed of house and projects.1.2.   The standard does not state loads and effects caused by railway traffic, roadtraffic, wave, stream flow, goods loading and unloading, earthquake, storm,temperature, a motive power of machinery and means of transportation…However, those loads and effect are stipulated by the relevantstandards issued by the State.1.3.   A load is calculated and determined basing on the result of the real work-observation during repairing.1.4.   Effects of the atmosphere is defined according to the standard climate-data forthe current construction design or according to the data from the headdepartment of hydrometeorology1.5.   Loads for the special and important projects is not included in the standard,but defined by the authorized level.1.6.   To the industries with specific projects (such as traffic, irrigation, electricity,post office…), basing on this standard; the specialty standard should bedetermined accordingly. 2.   Basic principle 2.1.   General regulation2.1.1 Loads generating during the process of usage, building and the process of creating, maintaining and moving the structure as well must be determinedwhenever designing house and projects2.1.2 The standard quantities stated in this standard are basic characteristics of load.The assumed load is determined by multiplying the standard load and thereliable coefficient of load. This coefficient covers a disadvantageous errorwhich might be generated by load comparing with the standard value anddepends on the mentioned limitation status.2.1.3 The assumed load is directly determined basing on the given-overloadprobability in case of reasons and appropriate statistical data.When there is concurrent effect from two or more temporary loads, thecalculation of structure and foundation bed under the first and second group of limitation status must be done accordance with the most disadvantageous loadaggregate or their correlative inner force.  VIETNAM STANDARD TCVN 2737:1995 286 The load aggregate is built up by the methods which have simultaneous effectfrom different loads, including a possibility of change of load’s effect chart.When the load aggregate or correlative inner force is calculated, it must bemultiplied the aggregate coefficient.   2.2 The reliable coefficient γ (excess-load coefficient)2.2.1 When determining the reliable coefficient for calculation of structure andfoundation bed, we must refer to as follow:2.2.1.1 When doing calculation of the intensity and stabilization, it refers to the article3.2, 4.2.2, 4.3.3, 4.4.2, 5.8, 6.3, and 6.17.2.2.1.2 When doing calculation of durability, refer 1. To the crane girder, observe theinstruction at article 5.162.2.1.3 When doing calculation basing on the deformation and transposition, take 1 if the standard structure and foundation bed design don’t state any other data.2.2.1.4 When doing calculation of the different limitation status which does notmention at the article 2.2.1.1, 2.2.1.2, 2.2.1.3, we use the standard structure andfoundation bed design.  Note: 1)   When determining the structure and foundation bed under load which isgenerated by the stage of construction, the assumed value of load of wind willbe reduced 20%2)   When we calculate the intensity and stabilization impacted by collisionbetween a bridge crane/chain-bridge and chair   , the reliable coefficient isreferred to 1 for all kinds of load  .   2.3 Classification of loads2.3.1 Loads are divided into two categories: frequent load and temporary load (longterm, short term and special ones – depending on how long it effects to)2.3.2 The frequent load (standard and assumed load) is loads whose effect does notchange during the stage of construction and usage of works. The temporaryload is loads whose effect may not exist for a certain period of time during theprocess of project construction and usage.2.3.2 The frequent load consists of:2.3.3.1 The mass of house parts and works, including mass of force-resistant structureand covering structure2.3.3.2 Mass and pressure of earth (occluding and banking earth), pressure generatedfrom mining  VIETNAM STANDARD TCVN 2737:1995 287  Note : home-made or given strain in the structure and foundation bed designmust be considered during the calculation as the strain caused by the frequent load. 2.3.4 The temporary load consists of:2.3.4.1 Mass of temporary partition, mass of earth and prop-concrete beneath theequipment.2.3.4.2 Mass of fixed equipments: machines, motors, containers, conduit includingspare parts, pivot, partitions, conveyor belts, fixed lift including cable andcontrolling set, mass of fluid and solid body in the equipments during usage.2.3.4.3 Pressure of steam, fluid, in the containers and conduits during usage;excessive pressure and loss of air pressure as ventilating the pits and others.2.3.4.4 Load impacts on the floor, which is generated by material and equipmentplatform in the room, cold storage, seed storage.2.3.4.5 The effects of technological heat because the machine is placed fixedly.2.3.4.6 Mass of layers of water on the water insulating roof.   2.3.4.7 Volume of layers of dust attaching to the structure.2.3.4.8 Vertical loads from the bridge crane or suspension crane at the single span of the house multiplied by the coefficient:0.5 – for the bridge crane which operates lightly.0.6 – for the bridge crane which operates hardly.0.7 – for the bridge crane which operated very hardly.2.3.4.9   Load on the floor of house, public house, production building and agriculturalbuilding is mentioned at column 5 of the table 3.2.3.4.10   Effect of foundation deformation is not included any earth structure change.2.3.4.11   Effect due to humidity change, shrinkage and variation of material2.3.5 The shortly temporary load consists of:2.3.5.1 Mass of people, repairs, spare-parts, tools and assembly jig at the equipment-maintain and fix area.2.3.5.2 Load generated in process of manufacturing, transferring and doingconstruction structure, in process of assembling and transferring theequipments, including loads caused by mass of things and material kept in thetemporary store (excluding loads of selected area for the warehouse or formaterial preservation), the temporary load of earth banking2.3.5.3 Load generated from the machine during the staring, shutting down, transitionand testing stage, even change or replacement of equipment position.  VIETNAM STANDARD TCVN 2737:1995 288 2.3.5.4 Load caused by movement of lifting equipments such as bridge crane,suspension crane, trolley hoist, loading machine…during the time of construction, usage; loads from loading and unloading goods at warehouseand cold storage.2.3.5.5 Load on the floor of house, public-house, production building and agriculturalbuilding is mentioned at column 4 of the table 3.2.3.5.6 Loads of wind2.3.6 The special load consists of:2.3.6.1 Load of earthquake2.3.6.2 Load of explosion2.3.6.3 Load of serious violation of technological process, temporarily brokenequipment2.3.6.4 Effect of foundation deformation due to earth structure change (example: earthdeformation because of land sliding or subsiding); effect due to grounddeformation at cracked areas, mining area, “caxto” phenomenon.2.4 The load aggregate2.4.1 The load aggregate comprises a basic and special complex, depending on theelements of mentioned load.2.4.1.1 The basic load aggregate includes frequent loads, the short- and long- termtemporary loads.2.4.1.2 The special load aggregate includes frequent loads, long- term temporaryloads, short-term temporary loads (might happen) and one of the special loads.The special load aggregate caused by the explosion or the collision of means of transportation against project’s parts does not cover short-term temporary loadsas the article 2.3.5The special load aggregate of earthquake does not include load of wind.The special load aggregate is used to determine the capability of fire-resistanceof the structure.2.4.2 If the basic load aggregate has one temporary load, the whole value of thetemporary load is counted .  2.4.3 If the basic load aggregate has two and more temporary loads, the value of thetemporary or their correlative inner force must be multiplied by the aggregate’scoefficient as follow:2.4.3.1 To long/short-term temporary load, do with 0.92.4.3.2 When specific effect of each short-term temporary load to the inner force,transposition of structure, foundation can be analyzed, the load with the most
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