World History Ch. 5 Section 1 Notes

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1. Classical Greece Section 1 2. Classical Greece Section 1 Early Greece Preview ã Starting Points Map: The Early Greeks ã Main Idea / Reading Focus ã Minoans and…
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  • 1. Classical Greece Section 1
  • 2. Classical Greece Section 1 Early Greece Preview • Starting Points Map: The Early Greeks • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Minoans and Mycenaeans • Greek City-States • Gods and Heroes
  • 3. Classical Greece Section 1 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
  • 4. Classical Greece Section 1 Early Greece Main Idea 1. The earliest cultures in Greece, the Minoans and the Mycenaeans, were trading societies, but both disappeared and were replaced by Greek city-states. Reading Focus • What were Minoan and Mycenaean cultures like? • What were the common characteristics of Greek city-states? • What role did stories of gods and heroes play in Greek culture?
  • 5. Classical Greece Section 1 Minoans and Mycenaeans Many parts of early Greek history are still a mystery, but we do know that two distinct cultures developed in early Greece. The Minoans of Crete • Minoan civilization developed as early as 3000 BC • Lasted nearly 2,000 years • Minoan ships sailed over Aegean Sea, possibly farther • Colonies established on dozens of Aegean islands • Ships filled with trade goods sailed back and forth between Crete and her colonies Excavations at Knossos • Much of Minoan life revealed by excavations – Solidly constructed buildings – Private rooms – Basic plumbing – Brightly colored artwork – Artwork shows life tied to sea, women as priests, dangerous games
  • 6. Classical Greece Section 1 Speculation • Much history of Minoan civilization result of guesswork, speculation –Historians cannot read Minoans’ writing, Linear A. –Does not appear to be related to languages of mainland Greece • Until writing deciphered, most knowledge will come from art, objects Rapid Decline • Minoan civilization fell apart rather suddenly, possibly from disaster. – Large eruption of volcanic island near Crete may have affected worldwide weather patterns. – Damage to Minoan ports, crops may have weakened society • Minoans conquered by warlike Mycenaeans
  • 7. Classical Greece Section 1 Mycenaeans The Mycenaean States • Mycenaeans built small kingdoms, often fought with each other • Name comes from fortress, Mycenae Minoan Influences • Mycenaeans traded with Minoans, copied writing • Became great traders • Trade increased after they conquered Crete 2. First Greeks • Mycenaeans considered first Greeks, spoke form of Greek language • Earliest kingdoms owed much to Minoans Mycenaean Differences • Society dominated by intense competition, frequent warfare, powerful kings • Kings taxed trade, farming to build palaces, high walls
  • 8. Classical Greece Section 1 Mycenaean Strengths and Downfall Mycenaean Strength • To show off strength, Mycenaeans built great monuments like Lion’s Gate • Kings’ constant quest for power, glory inspired legends • Most famous, story of Trojan War Trojan War • War supposedly involved early Greeks, led by Mycenae, who fought powerful city called Troy, in what is now Turkey • War may not have happened, but ruins of city believed to be Troy found Downfall • War played part in end of Mycenaean civilization, as did drought, famine • By end of 1100s BC, Mycenaean cities mostly in ruins; dark age followed • Greek civilization almost disappeared
  • 9. Classical Greece Section 1 Compare and Contrast How were Minoan and Mycenaean cultures similar? How were they different? Answer(s): similar—both were trading states; different—Mycenaean writing has been translated; Mycenaeans had frequent wars
  • 10. Classical Greece Section 1 A new type of society emerged in Greece in the 800s BC. The society was centered on the polis, or city-state. Each polis developed independently, with its own form of government, laws and customs. Life in the Polis • Polis, center of daily life, culture • Greeks fiercely loyal to their polis • Did not think of selves as Greeks, but as residents of their particular city-state Infrastructure • Polis built around high area, called acropolis • Acropolis used as fortification • Included temples, ceremonial spaces • Agora, public marketplace, below Other Attributes • Shops, houses, temples near agora • Gymnasium, athletes’ training grounds, public bath • Sturdy wall for defense surrounded polis Greek City-States
  • 11. Classical Greece Section 1 Political Systems of Greek City-States Each major polis had a different political system that developed over time. • Corinth, an oligarchy, ruled by a few individuals • Athens, birthplace of democracy • Sparta, one of mightiest city-states, but least typical
  • 12. Classical Greece Section 1 The Might of Sparta Beginnings • Sparta located on Peloponnesus, large peninsula of southern Greece • First surrounded by smaller towns; over time Sparta seized control of towns • After conquering town of Messenia, Spartans made Messenians into helots Helots • Helots were state slaves given to Spartan citizens to work on farms so citizens did not have to perform manual labor. • As result, Spartan citizens free to spend time training for war War • Spartan emphasis on war not due to fondness for fighting, but as way to keep order in society • Helots outnumbered Spartans seven to one, kept in check by strong army
  • 13. Classical Greece Section 1 Militaristic State To support their military lifestyle, the Spartans demanded strength and toughness. All babies were examined after birth and unhealthy children were left in the wild to die. Combat School • Boys taught physical, mental toughness by mothers until age 7 • Entered combat school to toughen for hardships of being soldier • At age 20 boys became hoplites, foot soldiers; remained in army 10 years before becoming citizens Women in Society • Unusual among Greek city-states • Women played important role • Trained in gymnastics for physical fitness, to bear strong children • Women had right to own property, unlike women in most of Greece Sparta was led by two kings who served as military commanders. Decision-making was largely left to an elected council of elders.
  • 14. Classical Greece Section 1 Identify Cause and Effect Why did Sparta’s political system develop? Answer(s): Because of Sparta's emphasis on war; it was led politically by two kings who served as military commanders.
  • 15. Classical Greece Section 1 Gods and Heroes The Gods of Olympus • Ancient Greeks believed in hundreds of gods, goddesses; each governed one aspect of nature, life • Example: Apollo controlled movement of sun; sister Artemis did same for moon • Greeks believed gods would protect them, city-states in exchange for proper rituals, sacrifices Legends and Myths • Much of what is known about early Greece comes from studying Greeks’ legends, myths • Myths, stories told to explain natural phenomena, events of distant past • Greek myths explained where they came from, how they should live, cope with uncertain world
  • 16. Classical Greece Section 1 3. Mount Olympus • 12 gods, goddesses were particularly influential in Greek lives • These 12 lived together on Mount Olympus, highest mountain in Greece • Olympian gods thought to have great power, though not perfect • Myths say gods flawed, often unpredictable—loved, hated, argued, made mistakes, got jealous, played tricks on each other Worship • Almost all Greeks worshipped same gods • Each polis claimed one god, goddess as special protector • Example: Athens sacred to Athena • Some locations considered sacred by all Greeks Sacred Locations • Delphi sacred to all Greeks— priestesses of Apollo were thought to receive visions of future • Olympia—every four years Greeks assembled there for Olympic Games; athletes competed against each other to honor gods
  • 17. Classical Greece Section 1 Myths about Heroes Lessons • Heroes killed monsters, made discoveries, founded cities, talked with gods on equal terms • Examples inspired individuals, whole city-states, to achieve great things • Hubris, great pride, brought many heroes to tragic ends • Served as lessons not to overstretch abilities Hercules and Theseus • Greeks also told myths about heroes, used to teach Greeks where they came from, what kind of people they should be • Some heroes, like Hercules, who had godlike strength, renowned through all Greece • Others, like Theseus, who killed Minotaur of Crete, famous chiefly in home cities
  • 18. Classical Greece Section 1 Describe What role did mythology play in Greek culture? Answer(s): explained natural phenomena; taught Greeks where they came from and how to act
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