Ecological Sentence Synthesis

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Ecological Sentence Synthesis By James H. Banning Conceptual Framework: The ecological sentence synthesis framework is built on inductive analysis (working from the data of specific studies to a more general conclusion). This kind of inductive inference is based on the principle of enumeration to reach a general conclusion about a group of observations (a group of studies). The inductive move up the ladder of abstraction will employ the general notion of constant comparative analysis – the prog
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  Ecological Sentence Synthesis By James H. Banning Conceptual Framework: The ecological sentence synthesis framework is built oninductive analysis (working from the data of specific studies to a more generalconclusion). This kind of inductive inference is based on the principle of enumeration toreach a general conclusion about a group of observations (a group of studies). Theinductive move up the ladder of abstraction will employ the general notion of constantcomparative analysis – the progression from open codes (coding sentences) to axial codes(sentences reflecting the categories of intervention associated with the data of the opencoding sentences) and finally a statement of the selective code (or summary of thecategorical sentences associated with the interventions for a specific study group).Procedure: For each study that is included in the synthesis an ecological sentence will bewritten. This sentence will follow the pattern: With this intervention, these outcomesoccur with these population foci and within these grades (ages), with these genders of learners and these ethnicities in these settings . The components of this sentence will bedetermined by the categories in the extraction process. These sentences can be produce by using the EPPI-R report function. You create a report and order the columns to matchthe structure of the “ecological sentence” noted above. These sentences serve as the opencodes within the “constant comparative analysis framework.” To create the axial (secondlevel or categorical codes) the open codes are arranged deductively and (indexed) under the intervention categories. This will result in a group of ecological sentences associatedwith an intervention. Next, this group of sentences will be used to generate one inclusive“ecological sentence.” This sentence will serve as the axial code. Finally, all the axialcode sentences will be used to write a summary ecological sentence. Ecologicalsentences can be generated for quantitative studies, qualitative studies, and multi-vocalstudies (the structure of the sentence needs to be more flexible for the multi-vocalstudies).Example:Step 1: Generate open code ecological sentences Summary of Qualitative Studies of Risk & Resiliency(Open code sentences generated from EPPI-R)  Ecological Sentences:  (With this intervention, these outcomes occurred with these populations withinthese grades, genders, and ethnicities in these settings.) Item ID ItemWith thisinterventionThese outcomesoccurWith thesepopulationfociAndwithinthesegradesAndwiththesegendersof learnersAnd withtheseethnicitiesIn thesesettings IT12946 Leone PE;(1994)Educationservices for youth withdisabilities in astate-operateduvenilecorrectionalsystem: Casestudy andanalysisBasicSkills/AcademicIndeterminate Middle/junior high schoolHigh school CorrectionalinstitutionIT12987 Schnorr RF;(1997 Spr) FromEnrollment toMembership:'Belonging' inMiddle and HighSchool ClassesBasicSkills/AcademicSocio-Behavioral MultipledisabilitiesLower limit –Upper limitBothmale andfemaleBlack /AfricanAmerican White /European(non-Hispanic)Middle/junior high schoolHigh schoolIT13384 Miller S;And O;(1988)InfluencingEngagementthroughAccommodation:An EthnographicStudy of At-Risk StudentsBasicSkills/AcademicAcademic/CognitiveLearningdisability,specificLower limit –Upper limitMaleonlyBlack /AfricanAmericanHigh schoolIT13608 Freeman JG;(1994) Anadolescent withlearningdisabilities, Eric:The perspectiveof a potentialdropoutBasicSkills/AcademicSocio-Behavioral Learningdisability,specificLower limit –Upper limitMaleonlyUnknownHigh schoolIT13479 Phillips P;(1990) A Self-Advocacy Planfor High SchoolPersonal/AffectiveOther AcademicOutcomesLearningdisability,specificLower limit –Upper limitBothmale andfemaleWhite /European(non-Hispanic)High school  Students withLearningDisabilities: AComparativeCase StudyAnalysis of Students',Teachers', andParents'Perceptions of Program EffectsIT12947 Lothstein L;(1985 Oct)Group therapyfor latency age black males:unplannedinterventions,setting, andracialtransferences ascatalysts for changePersonal/AffectiveSocio-Behavioral Emotionaldisturbance/ behavior disorder MentalretardationLower limit –Upper limitMaleonlyBlack /AfricanAmericanElementaryschoolIT13560 ColmantSA;Merta RJ;(2000 Jun)Sweat TherapyPersonal/AffectiveSocio-Behavioral Emotionaldisturbance/ behavior disorder Unknown MaleonlyOther (pleasespecify)Indeterminateor non-educationalIT13423 Llewellyn A;(2000 Feb)Perceptions of mainstreaming:A systemsapproachSchoolRestructuringSocio-Behavioral OrthopaedicimpairedOther healthimpairedUnknown Bothmale andfemaleUnknownHigh schoolIT14007 Baker J;SansoneJ; (1990)Interventionswith Students AtRisk for Dropping Out of Shool: A HighSchool RespondsSchoolRestructuringHigh schoolIT13844 Crowley EP;(1993) AQualitativeAnalysis of MainstreamedBehaviorallyDisorderedAggressiveAdolescents'Perceptions of Helpful andUnhelpfulSchoolRestructuringPhysical PresenceSocio-BehavioralEmotionaldisturbance/ behavior disorder Lower limit –Upper limitBothmale andfemaleBlack /AfricanAmerican White /European(non-Hispanic)High school  Teacher Attitudes andBehaviorsIT13520 Lightfoot, J.,Wright, S.,Sloper, P. (1999Jul) Supporting pupils inmainstreamschool with anillness or disability:Young people'sviewsOther non-InstructionPhysical PresenceAcademic/Cognitive PsychologicalLearningdisability,specificOther healthimpairedUnknown Bothmale andfemaleUnknownMiddle/junior high schoolHigh schoolIT14192 Todis B;BullisM;WaintrupM;SchultzR;D'AmbrosioR; (2001 Fall)Overcoming theOdds:QualitativeExamination of Resilienceamong FormerlyIncarceratedAdolescentsOther non-InstructionOther AcademicOutcomesEmotionaldisturbance/ behavior disorder Learningdisability,specificUnknown Bothmale andfemaleBlack /AfricanAmerican Hispanic /Latino/LatinaWhite /European(non-Hispanic)CorrectionalinstitutionIT14006 Bailey S;Sinclair R; (1992) Out of Sight but Not outof MindOther non-InstructionAcademic/CognitiveVisualimpairmentLower limit –Upper limitMaleonlyUnknownHigh schoolIT12948 MacKay B;(1987 Fal)Uncovering buried rolesthrough face painting andstorytellingIndeterminate Psychological Emotionaldisturbance/ behavior disorder Unknown Unknown UnknownIndeterminateor non-educationalIT13609 KorteringLJ;Braziel PM;(1999 Mar)Staying inschool: The perspective of ninth-gradestudentsIndeterminate Support for LearningEmotionaldisturbance/ behavior disorder Learningdisability,specificMentalretardationLower limit –Upper limitBothmale andfemaleWhite /European(non-Hispanic) UnknownHigh schoolIT13478 Morningstar ME;TurnbullAP;Turnbull IIIEmotionaldisturbance/ behavior Unknown Bothmale andfemaleBlack /AfricanAmericanHigh school
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