Chapter 6 - The Empires of PersiaI.The Rise and fall of the Persian Empires1.Empires arose in Irana)stayed in the shadow of Mesopotamia2.Persia absorbed migrators and invaders (nomads)a)coming out of central asia to northeast asia3.6th Century B.C.Ea)rulers of Persia start a s series of conquest(1)resulted in the formation of an enormous empire(a)4 ruling dynastiesi)Achamenidsii)Seleucidsiii)Parthiansiv)SasanidsB.The Achaemenid Empire (558-380 B.C.E)a)The Medes and Persians(1)closely related peoples that migrated from Central asia to Per-sia(2)lived in loose subjection to the Babylonians and Assyrian em-pires(3)Indo - European language and movement(4)shared cultural traits with Aryans(a)Aryans migrated to India(5)most were pastoralists(a)pastoralist - sheep or cattle farmers(6)organized by clans (not states or formal political institutions)(a)had a recognized leader that collected taxes and deliveredtribute to their mesopotamian overlords(7)had military power(a)descendants of nomadic peoples possessed the equestrianskills common to many steppe people(b)expert archers - frequently raided wealthy mesopotamianareas(c)when Assyrian and Babylonia empires weakened - Medesand Persians were no longer oppressed
Cyrus(1)launched the Persians’ imperial venture(2)came from mountainous region in Iran(3)often called Cyrus the shepard(4)his conquests laid the foundation of the first PErsian empires(a)known as the Achaemenid empirec)Cyrus Conquests(1)558 B.C(a)became king of the persian tribesi)ruled from his mountain forterss at pasagrade
(2)553(a)initiated a rebellion agains his median overlord who hecrushed in three years(3)548(a)all of Iran was under his control and began to look formore ways of expansion(4)546(a)Conquered Lydia in Antolia (modern day Turkey)(5)545- 539(a)campaign in central asia and Bactria (afghanistan)(6)539(a)seized babylonia(7)530(a)cyrus fell(b)physically wounded while protecting his northeaster fron-tier fro nomadic raiders(8)Cyrus son = Cambyses (reigned 530- 522)(a)conquered Egypt in 525 and brought wealth to Persiad)Darius (reigned 521 - 486)(1)greatest of the Achaemenid emperors(a)youngest kinsman of Cyrus(2)extended empire both east and west(3)his armies pushed into northwestern india as far as the indusriver(a)absorbing northern Indian kingdom of Gandhara(b)also captured Thrace, Macedonia and western coast of theBlack sea in souther europe(4)Darius preside the largest empire in the world in the late 6thcentury(5)important as an administrator than a conqueror(a)achaemenid rulers presided over more than 70 distinctethnic groups including people that lived in widely scat-tered regions, spoke many different languages and ob-served a profusion of religious and cultural traditions(b)maintain empire by establishing lines of communicationwith all parts of their realm and design institutions thatwould enable them to tax and administer their terrioriesi)made it possible for the achaemenid empire to surviveand pioneered administrative techniques that wouldoutlast their own dynasty and influence political life insouthwester asia
Persepolis(1)after Darius rise to power - he began to centralize his adminis-tration(2)520, Darius started to build a new capital at Persepolis nearPasargade
(a)Persepolis to serve as an administrative center and a mon-ument to the achaemenid dynasty; nerve center of thepersian empirei)nerve center - a resplendent capital bustling with advi-sors, ministers, diplomates, scribes, accountants, trans-lators, and bureaucratic officers of all descriptionsf)Achaemenid Administartion: Their Satrapies(1)gov. of the empire depend on a balance between central initia-tive and local administration(2) the achaemenids appointed governors to serve as agents of the central administration and oversee affairs in the variousregions(3)Darius divided realm in 23 satrapies(a)satrapies are basically states (like in the US)i)governed by satraps (governors in the US of everystate)(b)satraps were distant from Persepolisi)possibility they allied with local groups and become in-dependent of the achaemenid authorityii)2 contingents(1)each satrapy had a contingent of military officersand tax collectors who served as checks on thesatraps’ power and independence(2)the rulers created a new category of officials (spies)(a)(think of dixon’s ex of spies for a spy for a spyfor a spy)g)Taxes, Coins, and Laws(1)Darius wanted to improve administrative efficiency by regular-izing tax levies and standardizing laws(2)ASK ASK ASh)Roads and Communications(1)built good road across their reals(a)Persian Royal Roadi)Partially paved with stone (1600 miles)(2)imperial gov. also organized a courier service and built 111postal stations along the royal road(3)achaemenids improved existing routes between mesopotamiaand egypt and they built a new road between persia and theindus river to link the imperial center with the satrapy of Gandhara in northwester India(4)these roads facilitated trade which helped to integrate the em-pire’s various region into a larger communityi)Decline and Fall of the Achaemenid Empire(a)Cyrus and Darust tokk great care to respect the valuesand cultural traditions of areas they ruled ...(b)Xerexes (reigned 486 - 465)
i)flaunted his persian identity and tried to impose hisown values in conquered lands(1)enormous ill will took place especially in Mesop-tamia and Egypt and resented Xerxes’s pretensionsii)resentment of Persian conquerors coninuet to festerand caused more problems for the Achaemenid Empiras the tried to hold their empire together j)The Persian Wars (500 - 479)(1)Achaemenid had problems with Greek subjects and efforts tocontrol them helped the collapse of the Achaemenid Empire(2)Greeks inhabited Anatolia,(a)maintained economic ties with cousins in the peninsula of Greece(3)Ionian Greeks fell under Persian domination during the reign of Cyrus(a)became restive under Darius’s Persian Governors =tyrants, who oversaw their affairs.(b)rebellion launched a series of conflicts known as the Per-sian Wars(4)Darius attepted toe forestall future problems by mounting anexpedition to conquer the wealthy Greek cities and abosrbthem in its emprire(a)had some success the Persians suffered at a battle of Marathon (490 B.C) and they returned home withoutachieving their goals(5)Xerxes sent another expedition out ten years later but within18 months - the were defeated on and and sea and had to re-turn to Persia(6)Persians did not engage is large scale campaign for 150 years(backed off on Greece)(7)Alexander of Macedon (Alexander the Great)(a)stand off ended(b)334 invaded Persia with an army of tough Mace-donians(1)army was sophisticated, caried more arms, welltrained(c)331 B.Ci)Alexander shattered the Achaemenid forces at the bat-tle of Guagemela(d)Alexander led forces to Persepolisi)Confiscated the wealth stored in the imperial treasurythere and proclaimed himself heir to the Achaemenidrulers(e)after celebration, alexander and his forces ignited a blaze(perhaps intentionally) that destroyed Persepolis
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