Figure 1 a Typical Starting System Converts Electrical Energy Into Mechanical Energy to Turn the Engine

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Figure 1 A typical starting system converts electrical energy into mechanical energy to turn the engine. The components are: battery, to provide electricity to operate the starter; ignition switch, to control the energizing of the starter relay or solenoid; starter relay or solenoid, to make and break the circuit between the battery and starter; starter, to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy to rotate the engine; starter drive gear, to transmit the starter rotation to the engine fl
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  Figure 1 A typical starting system converts electrical energy into mechanicalenergy to turn the engine. The components are: battery, to provide electricity tooperate the starter; ignition switch, to control the energizing of the starter relay orsolenoid; starter relay or solenoid, to make and break the circuit between thebattery and starter; starter, to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy torotate the engine; starter drive gear, to transmit the starter rotation to the engineflywheel.   To prevent damage to the starter motor when the engine starts, the pinion gearincorporates an over-running (one-way) clutch which is splined to the starterarmature shaft. The rotation of the running engine may speed the rotation of thepinion but not the starter motor itself.The starting of the engine signals the driver to release the ignition key from the startposition, stopping the flow of current to the solenoid or relay. The plunger is pulledout of contact with the battery-to-starter cables by a coil spring, and the flow of electricity is interrupted to the starter. This weakens the magnetic fields and thestarter ceases its rotation. As the solenoid plunger is released, its movement alsopulls the starter drive gear from its engagement with the engine flywheel. Figure 2 Cut-away view of a typical starter motor equipped with a startermounted solenoid.    Figure 3 Exploded view of a common starter motor with the solenoid mounted onthe motor itself.   Figure 4 Exploded view of a typical starter motor from a vehicle which utilizes aseparately mounted solenoid.    Some starting systems employ a starter relay in addition to the solenoid. This relaymay be located under the instrument panel, in the kick panel or in the fuse/relaycenter under the hood. This relay is used to reduce the amount of current thestarting (ignition) switch must carry.There may be one other component included in the starting system; on vehicles withautomatic transmissions, a neutral safety switch (often referred to by many variousnames by the different manufacturers, such as: transmission range sensor, neutralsafety switch, park/neutral switch, etc.) on the side of the transmission is wired tothe relay or solenoid. Its function is to prevent activation of the starter (by creatingan open circuit) when the transmission is in any gear other than P (park) or N (neutral). The vehicle can only be started in P or N . Most manual transmissionvehicles have a clutch switch to prevent starting the vehicle unless the clutch isdepressed. Troubleshooting basic starting problems  The charging system   General information See Figures 25 thru 30 A typical charging system contains an alternator (generator), drive belt, battery,voltage regulator and the associated wiring. The charging system, like the startingsystem is a series circuit with the battery wired in parallel. After the engine is startedand running, the alternator takes over as the source of power and the battery thenbecomes part of the load on the charging system.Some vehicle manufacturers use the term generator instead of alternator. Manyyears ago there used to be a difference, now they are one and the same. Thealternator, which is driven by the belt, consists of a rotating coil of laminated wirecalled the rotor. Surrounding the rotor are more coils of laminated wire that remain  stationary (which is how we get the term stator) just inside the alternator case.When current is passed through the rotor via the slip rings and brushes, the rotorbecomes a rotating magnet with, of course, a magnetic field. When a magnetic fieldpasses through a conductor (the stator), alternating current (A/C) is generated. ThisA/C current is rectified, turned into direct current (D/C), by the diodes located withinthe alternator. Figure 25  Identification of the components utilized in a typical automotivecharging system.   Figure 26 Exploded view of a common alternator. Note that the regulator mountsto the rear side of the assembly.   Figure 27  Cut-away view of a common alternator, showing all of the internalcomponents.  
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