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Renal glycosuria, also known as renal glucosuria, is a rare condition in which the simplesugar glucose is excreted in the urine despite normal or low blood glucose levels. With normal kidney (renal) function, glucose is excreted in the urine only when there are abnormally elevated levels of glucose in the blood. However, in those with renal glycosuria, glucose is abnormally elevated in the urine due to improper functioning of the renal tubules, which are primary components of nephrons, the filte
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  Renal glycosuria , also known as renal glucosuria , is a rare condition in which the simplesugar glucose is excreted in the urine [1]  despite normal or low blood glucose levels. With normal kidney (renal) function, glucose is excreted in the urine only whenthere are abnormally elevated levels of glucose in the blood. However, in those with renal glycosuria, glucose is abnormally elevatedin the urine due to improper functioning of the renal tubules, which are primary components of nephrons,the filtering units of the kidneys. X-Ray Technology in a Nutshell  The most common imaging technique used today is a radiograph (x-ray film) and the most common x-ray ordered is achest x-ray, and the musculoskeletal x-ray exam comes in second. An x-ray provides a two dimensional image of theinterior of the body and the procedure is performed by a Radiologic Technologist.A single x-ray passes through the body   and exposes the film on a radiograph (or fluorescent screen) placed on the opposite side. Tissues having different densitiesshow up as differing densities on the radiograph i.e. x-rays which have there nature of being absorbed to various degreesthrough body tissues depending on the density of them. The Four Main Radiographic Densities  There are four fundamental radiographic densities. This is how they may appear on the fluorescent screen: Air and gasesappear black or radiolucent. Fat appears gray to black. Muscles and water appear grey. Bones and calcium appear white,or radiopaque. A tissue that is more dense absorbs more x-rays than tissues that are less dense. Radiopaque is a verydense tissue and a less dense tissue is said to be radiolucent. Bone is very dense and fat is moderately dense while othertissues are least dense. It is important to differentiate between two types of densities that are physical density andradiographic densities. The radiographic density of a substance is related to it's physical density CT Scan Technology (Computed Tomography)  In CT Scanning, x-rays moves in an arch around the part of the body being observed through a laser-like beam. Thebeams of x-rays passed through the region of the body imaged are collected by a special detector which converts the x-rays into electronic pulses that produce readings of the density of the tissue into a 1cm slice of the body. From thesereadings a computer can assemble a picture of the body called a CT Scan that can be viewed on a fluorescent screen, thenphotographed for later examinations. CT scan stands for computerized tomography. It obtains parts of the body that can'tbe seen on a standard x-ray with the help of computer algorithms in conjunction with the enhanced x-ray technology. MRI Technology - Magnetic Resonance Imaging (X-Ray Vision without actual X-Ray's)  MRI uses the magnetic properties of the hydrogen nucleus, which is excited by radio frequency radiation transmitted by acoil surrounded by the body part. When placed in strong magnetic fields, the nuclei of certain atoms absorb radiofrequencies beamed at them and then emit their own radio frequency waves. This process allows MRI Tech's andphysicians to see very clear pictures of the inside of the body including tissues, organs, and blood vessels. MRI is anoninvasive technique that does not use ionizing radiation. MRI has become one of the primary tools used to image thebrain, spinal cord, major blood vessels, and several key organs. The images can be produced in 3-D, which significantlyenhances the physician's ability to diagnose problems. MRI Technicians are also used to help view the process of surgery in real time in 3-D, which assists with a whole host of surgical procedures. Differences Between CT Scans and X-Ray's  CT Scans are an advanced form of x-ray technology used in detecting diseases in soft body tissues and can actuallyprovide images of internal organs that are impossible to detect with standard x-ray techniques. X-Ray's are good at findingbone fractures and for being used as a contrasting agent for several types of exams; however, the CT provides greaterdetail and clarity. CT scan has additional advantages of being able to produce imaging in virtually any orientation. It is amore technologically developed version of an x-ray, which is used on specific parts of the body. It also provides betterimages for bone structures, inner ear as it can easily detect tumors in the auditory canal and cochlea. CT Scans help  diagnose bone fractures, bone tumors, internal injuries and bleeding and blood clots and to monitor heart diseases andcancer. Differences Between CT Scans & MRI's  MRI uses magnetic waves to produce images while CT images are produced using x-rays. MRI provides more details of bony structures compared to CT Scan. CT Scans can't help much in seeing clearly very fine soft tissue details as in theshoulder or knee compared to MRI. MRI scans are best for imaging soft tissue. CT scans are much more costly and takes alonger time (30 minutes) to be completed compared to a MRI that takes about 5 minutes to complete. People with surgicalclips, metallic fragments, cardiac monitors and pace makers cannot have CT scans. Also pregnant women should not haveCT scans .MRI machines can produce in any plane without moving the patient. They also have the ability to change thecontrast of the images making them more clear than CT scan Disease Discussion: PelvicaliectasisPelvicaliectasis is a term used to describe a dilated renal pelvis and calyces. It is not synonymous with the wordhydronephrosis.Hydronephrosis is a term used to describe a dilated renal pelvis and calyces that are specifically caused by an obstructive process.Pelvicaliectasis exists when the renal pelvis and calyces are dilated without any evidence of obstruction. There are multiple causesof pelvicaliectasis and hydronephrosis. Common causes of hydronephrosis includeureteropelvic junction obstruction, ureterovescical junction obstruction, general ureteral obstruction/stricture, renal transplant obstruction, obstructed upper collecting systemduplication, ureterocele, bladder outlet obstruction, urethral valves, an obstructing pelvic mass, and benign prostatic hypertrophy.Common causes of pelvicaliectasis include an ileal loop diversion, prune belly syndrome, multicystic dysplastic kidney,andpolycystic kidney disease. Ultrasound is an excellent modality to determine if the renal pelvis and calyces are dilated while renallasix scintigraphy is an excellent way to evaluate the function of the kidney, and to help determine if a dilated renal collecting systemis obstructed or not.  
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