Glossary - IVF

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EART is an IVF training institute in the field of assisted reproductive technologies offers Short course and hands on training. Embryology Academy for Research & Training is recognized research institute for IVF Training Programme for IVF / ICSI / ART Micromanipulation , Reproductive Medicine. Our Accrideted Embryology courses are Basic course in Semenology & IUI,Advanced course in ICSI,Introductory course in ART,Certificate course in ART,Advanced course in cryo preservation. Contact Information: Tel : +91-22-28457140, +91-22-28457059 Email http://www
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  Acrosome A small 'cap' overlaying the sperm head.Abbreviation: Acrosome Reaction The loss of the acrosome that is necessary for successful fertilisation. Normally only about 10% of sperm undergo an acrosome reaction.Abbreviation: Adhesion In infertility, the sticking of ovaries, tubes, uterus, bowel and abdominal lining to one or more of each other so as to affect fertility. May follow pelvic surgery, tubal infections or endometriosisAbbreviation: Androgens Male sex hormones.Abbreviation: Anovulation The absence of ovulation. A period may still occur.Abbreviation: Antibody In infertility, a compound in the blood, mucus or semen which interferes with normal sperm function.Abbreviation: Azoospermia The absence of sperm in seminal fluid due to blockage of sperm ducts or impairment of spermproduction.Abbreviation: Biochemical Pregnancy Is a positive hCG blood test with no evidence of a gestation sac on Ultrasound.Abbreviation: Catheter A fine tubing especially developed for the transporting of eggs, sperm or embryos into the woman'sfallopian tubes or uterus.Abbreviation: Cervical Mucus Secretions produced by the cervix that, at the time of ovulation, assist the passage of sperm throughthe cervix.Abbreviation: Cervix The lower part of the uterus that connects with the vagina.Abbreviation: Cetrotide Injectable medication given to prevent spontaneous ovulation.Abbreviation: Clinical Pregnancy Presence of a gestation sac at Ultrasound.Abbreviation:   Clinical Pregnancy - Viable  A positive hCG blood test and the presence of a foetal heartbeat at Ultrasound.Abbreviation: Clomiphene Citrate Or Clomid A drug to stimulate the ovary to produce several follicles.Abbreviation: Donor Egg (Oocyte) Eggs taken from one woman and donated to another.Abbreviation: Donor Sperm Sperm produced from a man who is not the woman's partner to be used for artificial insemination orfor IVF/GIFT.Abbreviation: Down Regulation This refers to the shutting off of the messages from the pituitary gland (part of the brain) to theovary that enables complete control over the events in a cycle.Abbreviation: Ectopic Pregnancy A pregnancy in which the fertilised egg implants anywhere but in the uterine cavity, usually in thefallopian tubes, or rarely the ovary or the abdominal cavity.Abbreviation: Ejaculate Semen ejected from the penis.Abbreviation: Embryo Cryopreservation The deep-freezing of embryos not transferred fresh.Abbreviation: Embryo Transfer The placement of embryos into the uterus using a fine catheter.Abbreviation:ET Endocrinology Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specificsecretions called hormones. Hormones are molecules that act as signals from one type of cells toanother. Most hormones reach their targets via the blood. Although every organ system secretes andresponds to hormones (including the brain, lungs, heart, intestine, skin, and the kidney), the clinicalspecialty of endocrinology focuses primarily on the endocrine organs, meaning the organs whoseprimary function is hormone secretion. These organs include the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, ovariesand testes, and pancreas.Abbreviation: Endometriosis A presence of endometrial tissue (the normal uterine lining) in abnormal locations such as the tubes,ovaries and peritoneal cavity (abdomen).Abbreviation: Endometrium The lining of the uterus which grows and is shed each cycle.Abbreviation:  Epididymis A special duct at the back of the testis for the storage of sperm as they mature.Abbreviation: Fallopian Tubes A pair of narrow tubes that carry the egg from the ovary to the body of the uterus. Fertilisationoccurs in the outer end of the tube.Abbreviation: Fertilisation The penetration of the egg by the sperm.Abbreviation: Fertility Fertility is the ability of people or animals to produce healthy offspring in abundance. In the Englishlanguage, the term was srcinally applied only to females, but increasingly is applied to males aswell, as common understanding of reproductive mechanisms increases and the importance of themale role is better known. The opposite of fertility is infertility. Human fertility depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior, culture, instinct, endocrinology, timing, economics, way of life, andemotions. Animal fertility is no less complex, and may display astounding mechanisms.Abbreviation: Fibroids A benign tumour of fibrous tissue that may occur in the uterine wall. Fibroids can be totally withoutsymptoms or may cause abnormal menstrual patterns. They rarely cause infertility.Abbreviation: Fimbriated Ends The fringed and flaring outer ends of the fallopian tubes that pick up the sticky egg from the ovary.Abbreviation: Foetus The developing human after embryo stage from the ninth week of pregnancy to birth.Abbreviation: Follicle The cells surrounding a developing egg in the ovary.Abbreviation: Follicle Stimulating Hormone A hormone naturally produced by the pituitary gland which is essential for the growth of ovarianfollicles in the woman and sperm production in the man.Abbreviation:FSH Follicular Phase The first half of the menstrual cycle when ovarian follicular development occurs.Abbreviation: Gamete The male or female reproductive cells, the sperm or the egg.Abbreviation: Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer Mimics natural conception more closely than IVF. In GIFT, eggs are collected from the female partnerbut instead of being taken to the laboratory for fertilisation, the eggs plus the previously collectedand washed sperm are placed directly into a normal fallopian tube using a fine sterile plastic tube.Abbreviation:GIFT  Gn-RH Antagonist An injection used to suppress spontaneous ovulation during ART cycle.Abbreviation: Gonadotrophin A hormone that is capable of stimulating the testicles or ovaries to produce sperm or eggrespectively.Abbreviation: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Antibodies Test done on male and female to test for exposure to the AIDS virus. A positive test does notnecessarily mean that exposure to AIDS has occurred or that the person has or will get AIDS. Apositive test may mean that the antibody is present in the blood, which means that, even though theperson may not be sick, he/she may still infect others by sharing needles or having sex withoutcondoms. If a woman is pregnant and is HIV positive, there is a strong chance that the baby will beinfected with the AIDS virus. All couples having IVF/GIFT are asked to have this test.Abbreviation: Hormone A chemical produced by an endocrine gland in the body that circulates in the blood and haswidespread action throughout the body.Abbreviation: Hormone Assay The measurement of hormones present in the blood.Abbreviation: Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin A hormone secreted by the placenta in pregnancy that prolongs the life of the corpus luteum andthus preserves the pregnancy. The hormone accounts for pregnancy tests being positive. It may alsobe administered therapeutically in some infertility problems and is used in the IVF treatment cyclesto trigger ovulation by mimicking the action of LH.Abbreviation:HCG Implantation The embedding of an embryo in the endometrium of the uterus.Abbreviation: In Vitro Fertilisation In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) IVF is the procedure by which the egg from a female partner and thesperm from a male partner are mixed in the laboratory. Provided fertilisation occurs in the laboratoryand the resultant embryos look normal, they are transferred into the uterus (womb) of the female. Innatural conception, the egg and sperm meet in the fallopian tube and fertilisation and earlydevelopment occurs in the tube before implantation in the uterus.Abbreviation:IVF Infertility The inability to conceive or carry a baby to term after twelve months of unprotected sex.Abbreviation: Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection This term refers to the direct injection of a single sperm into the substance (called cytoplasm) of theegg thus the term ICSI refers to Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. The microinjection procedure isused for the more severe forms of male infertility or after a cycle with poor fertilisation.Abbreviation:ICSI
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