Glossary of Morphological Terms Applied to Paleozoic Corals

of 3
31 views
PDF
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Document Description
Dorothy Hill - 1981
Document Share
Document Tags
Document Transcript
  F32 C oelenterata-AnthozoaRugosa-Morphology F33 suchtermsasembryanic,neanic(adalescent),brephic(adult),andgerantic(senile).Arbitrarylimitsto'thestageshavebeenputatcanvenientplaces,suchastheinsertianafthepratosepta,insertianafthefirstfewmeta-andminarsepta,appearanceafdissepiments,andabaxialwithdrawalafsepta.Inthisvalume,stageterminalagyisleftmarefluid,earlyandlatebeingusedincamparisanwiththeaverage.MarphalagicalvariatianduringantagenyhasbeendiscussedbyNEUMAN(1974,p.151).Thesequenceafmarphalagicalchangesto'beabservedbyserialsectianing,e.g.,inthelengthafseptaandtheseptalarrangement,iscammanlyfaundto'distinguishfamilies,andindeed,FEDaRaWSKI(1973,p.89)hascansideredpentaphyllaidantagenyto'beSo'distinctiveasto'warranttheseparatianafanewsubarderTachylasmatina.Theshartageafspecimenswithcampleteapicalcanesrestrictsthepracticalusethatcanbemadeafserialsectianstudies;nevertheless,anexpansianafsuchwarkismuchto'bedesired.ApparentdifferencesbetweentheantageniesafaffsetsintheanecarallumaswellastheantagenyafpratacaralliteshavebeendiscussedabaveinthesectiananIncrease. GLOSSARYOFMORPHOLOGIC'ALTERMSAPPLIEDTOPALEOZOICCORALS TermscommanlyusedinthisreVISIanareprintedinboldfacecapitals;lessgenerallyusedtermsareprintedinbaldfacelawercaseletters.ThecapitallettersinparenthesesaftereachdefinitianindicatewhetherthetermappliestaR,Rugasa,H,arderHeteracaralliaafsubclassRugO'sa,arT,Tabulata.Termsapplyinganlyto'theTabulataareto'befaundinthesectiO'nanmarphalagyaftheTabulata. abaxialdeclinationofdissepimentarialortabularialfloors.Floorsslopedownawayfromaxis(H,R).acanthineseptum.Typecomposedofasingleseriesoftrabeculaewithfreedistalendsformingspinoseprojections(R,T).adaxialdeclinationofdissepimentarialortabularialfloors.Floorsslopedowntowardaxis(R).adaxial(axial)increase.Offsetsarisefromparentcorallitebygrowthofnewdividingwallsfromwalltowardaxis(R,T).ALARFOSSULA.Relativelyprominentinterseptalspaceatlocusofinsertionofnewseptaoncountersideofalarseptum(seefossula,cardinalfossula,counterfossula)(R).ALARSEPTUM(symbolA).Oneoftwoprotoseptalocatedaboutmidwaybetweencardinalandcountersepta,distinguishedbyinsertionofnewlyformedmetaseptaonsidefacingcounterseptum(seeothertypes:cardinal,counter,counter-lateral)(R).amplexoidseptum.Typecharacterizedbyshortnessexceptwhereseptumisextendedadaxiallyondistalsideofatabula,asin Amplexus (R).APEX.Conicaltipatproximalendofsolitarycorallite(R)orprotocorallite(R,T).aphroid.Massivecorallumlikeastreoidtypebutseptashortenedperipherally,adjacentcorallitesbeingunitedbyadissepimentalzone(R).arachnophylloid.Typeofseptumconsistingofarectilinearnetworkofshorttrabeculaebasedondissepimentsandconnectedbytransverserods, asin Arachnophyllum (R). aseriateseptum.Typeofseptumcomposedofshort,finetrabeculaethatcurvelaterallysoastoendinseptalfaces,notonthedistaloraxialseptaledges(R).astreoid.Massivecoralluminwhichseptaofeachcorallitearefullydevelopedbutwallsbetweencorallitesarelacking;septaofadjacentcorallitesaregenerallyinalternatingposition(R).atavo-tissue.Skeletalelementsofparentcorallitethatproceeddistallywithoutchangeandareincorporatedinarchitectureofoffset(R,T).auiophylloid.Typeofaxialstructurelikethattermedclisiophylloidbutlackingamedialplateandoutlinedbyatabellarwall,asin Aulophyllum (R). AULOS.Tubularaxialstructurethatdividesinner,commonlyhorizontalpartsoftabularialfloorsfromouter,abaxiallydeclinedparts(R).axialcoil.Longitudinalstructureinaxialregionofcoralliteformedbytwistingofinneredgesofmajorseptacommonlyassociatedwithtransverseskeletalelements;coilingiscommonlycounterclockwiseadaxiallyincalicalview(R).axialcolumn.Axialstructurewithwallformedbytabellaeeachwithitsouteredgebasedontheonenextbelow(R).axiallobe.Digitateorveriformadaxialseptalprojection(R).axialseptum.Longitudinalplatecomposedofcardinalandcounterseptaconjoinedataxis(R).axialstructure.Collectivetermforvariouslongitudinalstructuresinaxialregionofcorallite,whethersolidornonsolid,arodlikecolumellaoranaxialcoil(R,T).axisofdivergence.Generallyverticalorobliquelineinseptumfromwhichtrabeculaedivergeinwardandoutward (R). biformtabularium.Typecommonlyfoundincoralliteswithcontratingentminorsepta;theslopeoftheouterpartofthetabularialfloorisreversedorreducedinloculibetweentheminorseptaandthemajorseptaagainstwhichtheyimpinge(R).alceoloid.Solitarycoralliteshapedliketipofcpointedslipperasin Calceola} withangulatededgesbetweenflattenedandroundedsides(R).CALICE.Distalsurfaceofcorallite,generallybowl-shaped(R,T).calicularboss.Protuberanceincentralpartofcaliceinsomecorallites;mayrisefromcalicularpit(R).calicularpit.Abruptlydepressedcentralpartofcaliceinsomecorallites,surroundedbyacalicularplatform(R).calicularpla-tform.Partoffloorof.calice,havingasubhorizontalorientationoroutwardlysloping(everted)form;generallysurroundsacalicularpit(R).CARDINALFOSSULA.Relativelyprominentin-terseptalspacedevelopedinpositionofcardinalseptumandgenerallywithdeepeningoftabularfloor;comprisesthetwocardinallociofmetaseptalinsertion(R).CARDINALSEPTUM(symbolC).Protoseptuminplaneofbilateralsymmetryofacorallite,distinguishedfromotherprotoseptabyinsertionofnewlyformedmetaseptaadjacenttoitoneitherside(R).CARINA.Keel-likeelevationonface(side)ofsep-tum,parallelwithaxisofseptaltrabecula(R).catenoid.CoraUumwithcorallitesunitedlaterallyaspalisadeswhichappearchainlikeincrosssection(R).ceratoid.Veryslenderlyconical,horn-shapedsoli-tarycorallite(R).cerioid.Massivecoralluminwhichwallsofadjacentpolygonalcorallitesarecloselyunited (R,T). clinotabella.Somewhatgloboseshorttabelladeclinedadaxiallyfromdissepimentarialwallandabuttingonearliertabella(R).clinotabula.Elongatetabellasteeplydeclinedadaxiallyfromdissepimentarialwallandeithercrossingtransverselytomeetaxialcolumnorabuttingonuppersurfaceofearlierclinotabula(R).clisiophylloid.Typeofaxialstructurewithshortmedialplateincardinal-counterplane,intransversesectionresemblingaspiderweb,asin Clisiophyllum (R). closedfossula.Prominentinterseptalspaceenclosedtowardaxisofcorallitebyunitededgesofsepta(R).COLUMELLA.Solidornonsolidaxialstructureformedbyvariousmodificationsofinneredgesofsepta;commonlyprojectsintocaliceinformofacalicularboss (R). COMPLETETABULA.Type'consistingofasingleplatform,notcomposedofseveralsmallplatesjoinedtogether (H,R, T).COMPOUNDCORALLUM.Typeconsistingofprotocoralliteandoffsets (R, T).concaveside.Thesideoflessercurvatureinacurvedsolitarycorallite (R). concentricdissepimentarium.Typewithseptalongitudinallycontinuousanddissepimentswiththeiredgesdrawnuptowardseptasothattheircrosssectionsareconcavetowardaxisofcorallite(R).connectingplatform.FoundinphaceloidcorallawhereSilTIultaneousextensionsofcalicularplatformsofallcorallitesdevelopperiodically(R,T).connectingtubule.Subhorizontaltubularconne~tionbetweenneighboringcorallitesinfasciculatecorallum(R,T).contrac1ined.Minorseptumthatinclinestowardbutdoesnotconnectwithmajorseptumadjacentonsidetowardcounterseptum(R).contratingent.Minorseptumthatleansagainstmajorseptumadjacentonsidetowardcounterseptum(R).convexside.Thesideoflongestcurvatureinacurvedsolitarycorallum(R).CORALLITE.Exoskeletonofasolitarypolyporofabudinacolony(H,R,T).CORALLUM.Exoskeletonofacoralcolonyorasolitarycoral(H,R,T).counterfossula.Relativelyprominentinterseptalspacedevelopedinpositionofcounterseptum(R).COUNTER-LATERALSEPTUM(symbolKL).'Oneoftwopresumedprotoseptathatadjoincounterseptumoneitherside(R).COUNTERSEPTUM(symbolK).Protoseptumoppositecardinalseptuminposition(R).cylindrical.Typeofcoralliteofnearlyuniformdiameterexceptintheapicalregionofsolitaryforms(H,R,T).cystiphylloiddissepiment.Typefoundincoralsinwhichseptaarelongitudinallydiscontinuousandarerepresentedbyseptalcrestsofseparateoronlyinpartcontiguoustrabeculae(R).dendroid.Irregularlybranchingtypesoffasciculatecorallum(R,T).dibunophylloid.Typeofaxialstructurelikethattermedclisiophylloidbutwithlongermedialplateandfewerseptallamellae,asin Dibunophyllum (R).dilatedseptum.Typepartlyorwhollythickened(R).discoid.Solitarycorallitewithbuttonlikeform(R).DISSEPIMENT.Smalldomedplateformingcystlikeenclosureinmarginariumofacorallite (R,T). DISSEPIMENTARIUM.Peripheralzoneofcoralliteinterioroccupiedbydissepiments(R).distal.Directionawayfrompointoforiginofacorallite(seeproximal)(H,R,T).EPITHECA.Thinexternalsheathcoveringinnerfibrouspartofouterwallofcorallite(R,T).exsert.Typeofseptumwithaxisoftrabeculardivergencesuchthatdistalendsofabaxiallyinclinedtrabeculaerisefreeaboveupperedgeofepitheca (R). fascicle.Microstructuralunit,aconicalaggregateoffibersofCaC03,expandingdistally(H,R,T). iI  F34 C oelenterata-AnthozoaRugosa-Morphology F35 fiber.Finestructuralunit,composedoftufts ofneedlesof CaCOa groupedintofascicles(H,R,T).finestructure.Thefineskeletalstructureasitappearsinstudybyhandlens(H,R,T).firstordertrabecula.Typethatextendsfromwalltodistaloraxialedgeofseptum;commonlylarge(H,R,T).flange.Keelonfaceofseptumanddirectedparalleltodistaledgeofseptumorhorizontal(R).foliose.Typeofcorallumwithlaminarbranches (R,T). FOSSULA.Interseptalspacedistinguishedbyunusualshapeandsize;whenusedalonereferstocardinalfossula(R).groove.Seeseptalfurrow.growthridges(rings).Fineaccretionringsofepitheca(R,T).herringbonedissepimentarium.Typeinwhichdissepimentsbetweenmajorseptainosculate,minorseptabeinglongitudinallydiscontinuous(R).holacanth.Seemingtrabeculaconsistingofclearcalcite,aneffectofdiagenesisonaxialpartcommonlyofrhabdacanthormonacanth(R,T).holotheca.Epithecalsheathcommontoperipheralcorallitesofacompoundcorallum(R,T).horseshoedissepiment.Typewithhorizontalbaseandstronglyarchedtoppart,arrangedinapipeinsingleverticalseries(R).hysterocorallite.Newcoralliteformedincompoundcorallum(seeoffset)(R,T).incompletetabula.Typeconsistingofseveralsmallplates(tabellae)joinedtogether(R,T).INCREASE.Additionofcorallitestocompoundcorallum(seeoffset,hysterocorallite)(R,T).innerseptalstereozone.Wallwithindissepimentariumandformedbylocalizedthickeningofsepta(R).interseptalridge.Longitudinalelevationonoutersideofcorallitewall,correspondinginpositiontospacebetweenapairofadjacentseptainsideofwall(R).keyholefossula.Prominentinterseptalspaceatpositionofcardinalseptum,expandingmoreorlesssuddenlytowarditsclosedadaxialend(R).laminarseptum.Longitudinalradialpartitioningwallincoralliteformedoftrabeculaethatarecontiguousthroughouttheirlength(H,R,T).lateraldissepiment.Typehavingblisterlikeformdevelopedinisolatedmanneronsidesofsepta (R). lateralincrease.Formationofnewcoralliteinfasciculatecorallumbysidewardgrowth(R,T).longitudinalskeletalelement.Elementofcoralskeletonorientedindirectionofgrowthofcorallite(H,R,T).lonsdaleoiddissepiment.Transeptaldissepimentdevelopedacrosslongitudinaldiscontinuitiesinsepta,asin Lonsdaleia (R). lonsdaleoidseptum.Typecharacterizedbylongitudinaldiscontinuitytowardperipheraledge,asin Lonsdaleia (R). lumen.Interiorofcoralliteboundedbyauterwall (H,R,T). MAJORSEPTUM.Oneoftheprotoseptaormetasepta(H,R).MARGINARIALINCREASE.Typeinwhichoffsetsarisewhollywithinmarginarium(R,T).MARGINARIUM.Peripheralpartofinteriorofcorallitedistinguishablefromtabulariumbydifferenceinconstituentstructures,generallyabundantdissepiments,ordensedepositofskeletaltissueproducingastereozone(R,T).MASSIVE.Corallumcomposedofcorallitescloselyincontactwithoneanother(R,T).METASEPTUM.Oneofthemainseptaofacoralliteotherthanprotosepta,generallydistinguishedbytheirextensionadaxiallymuchbeyondminorsepta(R).microstructure.Skeletalstructureasitappearsinstudybyopticalmicroscope(H,R,T).microtuft.Smallestconicalaggregateofcrystallitesresolvableunderelectronmicroscope(R,T).miniseptum.Shortseptumfoundinsomecoralsininterseptalloculibetweenadjacentmajorandminorsepta(R).MINORSEPTUM.Oneoftherelativelyshortseptathatareinsertedbetweenadjacentmajorsepta (H,R). nlonacanth.Simpletrabeculainwhichfibersarerelatedtoasinglecenterofcalcification(R,T).naoticseptum.Typecharacterizedbydevelopmentperipherallyinaseriesofcloselyspaceddissepimentlikeplates,asin Naos (R).neotissue.Newskeletaltissueformedduringincreaseandbelongingtotheoffsetalone(R,T).OFFSET.Newcoralliteformedduringincreaseinacompoundcorallum(R,T).openfossula.Prominentinterseptalspacenotenclosedtowardaxisofcorallitebyunitededgesofsepta(R).operculum.Lidlikecoveringofcaliceinsomecorallites,formedofoneormoreindependentplates(R).parricidal.Termappliedtoincreaseinwhichtabulariumofparentcoralliteceasestogrowdistally (R,T). patellate.Lowsolitarycorallitewithsidesexpandingfromapexatangleofabout1200(R).pattern.Arrangementofoffsetsincompound·corallum(R,T).pectinateseptum.Typeinwhichdistalendsoffirstordertrabeculaeareseparateandprojectliketeethofcomb(R,T).peneckielloiddissepiment.Typeformedinaperipheralverticalseries,suchthatinlongitudinalsectiontheupperpartisflatordeclinedslightlyoutward,andtheinnerpartisgloboseadaxially,asin Peneckiella (R). phaceloid.Fasciculatecorallumhavingsubparallelcorallites(R,T).pipe.Singleverticalseriesofdissepiments,ofeitherhorseshoeorflatlongitudinalsection(R). ã plocoidãMassivecoralluminwhichcorallitesarenotdefinedbywalls(R).protocorallite.Thefirst-formedcoralliteofacompoundcorallum(R,T).PROTOSEPTUM.Oneofsixfirst-formedseptaofacorallite(H,R).proximal.Directiontowardpointoforiginofacorallite(H,R,T).pyramidal.Solitarycorallitewithflattenedsidesthatmeetatangles,asin Goniophyllum (R).quadrant.Spaceininteriorof.acoralliteboundedbycardinalseptumandanalarseptumorbycounterseptumandanalarseptum(R).radiciformprocess.Rootlikeepithecateoutgrowthofacorallitewall,servingforfixation(seealsorootlet,talon)(R,T).ramose.Branchingformofcerioidorplocoidcorallum(R,T).rejuvenescence.Typeofgrowthinwhichdiameterisperiodicallysuddenlyreducedbeforeagainincreasing;thereductionmaybeaccompaniedbyrevisionofinternalstructuretothatofearlierstageofdevelopment(R,T).retiformseptum.Typeofperforateseptumcomposedofanirregularnetworkofskeletaltissue (R,T). rhabdacanth.Compoundtrabeculawithsecondordertrabeculaegroupedarounditsprimaryaxisofgrowth(R,T).rhipidacanth.Compoundtrabeculawithsecondordertrabeculaeprojectingperpendiculartomedianseptalplane(R).rhopaloidseptum.Typecharacterizedbydistinctlythickenedaxialedgeappearingclub-shapedincrosssection(R).rootlet.Seeradiciformprocess(R,T).scale.Smallplatelikestructureattachedtoseptalgroovesorridgesortosmoothepitheca(R,T).SCLERENCHYME.Calcareoustissueofcorallite (H,R,T). sclerocone(septalcone).Zoneofskeletal.thickeningonselectedoldcalicularfloors,moreorlesswidelyspacedinthecorallite,andaffectingseptaltrabeculae,dissepiments,andtabulae;ofinvertedconicalform(R).scolecoid.Solitarysubcylindricalcorallitebentirregularlyinwormlikemanner(R).secondordertrabeculae.Smalltrabeculaecommonlyoriginatingeitherataxisoffirstordertrabeculaorinmedianplaneofseptum(R,T).second2rylamellarstructure.Finestructure·ofparallellamellaecommonlyobliquetogrowthlamellae,orzigzag,producedduringdiagenesis (H,R,T). septalcomb.Septumthatislaminarnearouterwallofcorallitebutspinoseondistalandaxialedges(seepectinateseptum)(R,T).septalcone.Alternativetermforsclerocone,whichsee.septalcrest.Shortlaminarpartoflongitudinallydiscontinuousseptumbasedonuppersurfaceof , dissepimentortabula(R).septalface.Sideoflaminarseptum(R,T).septalfurrow(groove).Longitudinalfurrowonoutersideofcorallitewall,correspondinginpositionwithaseptumoninnersideofwall(R).septallamella.Radiallydisposedlongitudinalplateinaxisofcorallite,alignedwithaseptumbutdiscontinuouswithit(R).septal(axial)lobe.Fingerlikeorscolecoidprocessextendingadaxiallyfromaxialedgeofseptum (R). SEPTUM.Radiallydisposedlongitudinalpartitionofcorallite(H,R,T).'SOLITARY.Coralliteofpolypnotformingpartofacolony(H,R).spongycolumella.Typeconsistingofaxiallobesandseptallamellaeassociatedwithtabulaeortabellae(R).STEREOZONE.Areaofdenseskeletaldepositsinacorallite,generallyperipheralorintradissepimentarialinposition(R,T).stuntedseptum.Typethatprojectsbrie8yornotatallintolumen,thoughrepresentedonoutsideofwallbyseptalfurrow(R).synapticula.Smallrodorbarconnectingopposedfacesofadjacentsepta(R).TABELLA.Smallsubgloboseplateinaxialpartofcoralliteformingpartofanincompletetabula (R,T). TABULA.Transversepartitionofcorallite,nearlyplane,orupwardlyconvexorconcave,extendingtoouterwallortoinnermarginarialwall(H, R,T). tabularialfloor.Calicalsurfaceorvacatedcalicalsurfaceintabularium(H,R,T).TABULARIALINCREASE.Typeinwhichneowallsofoffsetsarisefirstinpartinaxial(tabularial)region,andthetabulariumoftheparentthenceasestogrow(R,T).TABULARIUM.Axialpartoftheinteriorofacoraniteinwhichtabulaeortabellaearedeveloped(H,R,T).talon.Buttressproducedbyoutgrowthofcorallitewall,servingasaidinfixation(seeradiciformprocess)(R).thamnasterioid.Massivecorallumcharacterizedbyabsenceofcorallitewallsandbyconfluentseptathatjoinneighboringcorallitestogether,withpatternofseptaresemblinglinesofforceinamagneticfield(R).TRABECULA.Pillarofradiatingcalcareousfiberscompnslngskeletalelementinstructureofseptumandrelatedcomponents(H,R,T).trabecularfan.Fanofseptaltrabeculaeradiatinginplaneofseptumfromanaxisofdivergence (R). transeptaldissepiment.Typedevelopedacrosslongitudinaldiscontinuityinseptum(R).TRANSVERSESKELETALELEMENTS.Platesdevelopedtransversetothedirectionofgrowthofcorallite(H,R,T).  F36 C oelenterata-AnthozoaRugosa-AssumptionsontheSoftParts F37 ,~ septum -b' edgezonemesenterialfilament-columnwall ã.. 2b 2c mesentery a- maybeavailableinmetabolism;zooxanthellaemaybeessentialasasourceofsuchnutrientsasphosphorous,eventhoughtheymaybeinadequateinsomecasesasasourceofreducedorganiccarbon (MUSCATINE, 1973, p. 111). epithecalwallbasaldisc . . . . 20 . . . . . eãã ' . . . b-- FIG. 19.Assumptionsonrugosecoralsoftparts;thescIeractinian polyp.--l, Relationofpolypandskeleton;youngcaryophyllidwithedgezone(mesenteriesnotshownbetweenseptainforeground). 2,Flabellum;2a, lackingedgezone; 2b,c, transv.sees.of 2a alonglinesa-a'andb-b'(afterWells,1956). , tively,ifnotquantitatively,innutrition.Whereasthereisnoconclusiveevidencethatzooxanthellaearedigestedbycorals,thereareexperimentaldatashowingthatsolubleproductsofphotosynthesismaybereleased by zooxanthellaeintothehostcellsandthus 1 stomodaeummesentery ZOOXANTHELLAE AlsotobefoundintheendodermofhermatypicScleractinia(i.e.,thosethatarereef-builders,orarefoundonlyinwatersofternperature,depth,andsalinityconducivetotheformationofreefs),arerestingphasesofdinoflagellatealgaeknownaszooxanthellae.Thesedonotoccurinaher-matypicScleractinia,whicharefoundinwaterstoodeeportoocoldforhermatypiccorals.IthasbeensuggestedthatthosePaleozoiccoralsthatarereef-buildersalsohadzooxanthellae.Zooxanthellaeenhancemetabolicefficiencybyabsorbingwasteproducts,andbyincreasingtherateofcalcareousskeletalformation.Theymayalsoassistqualita-theadmesogloealpartsoftheendoderm,whichhastheimportantmetabolicandreproductivefunctionsaswell.Scleractiniansarecarnivores,usingtentacles,nematocysts,cilia,mucus,andmesenterialfilamentstoremovezooplanktonandotheranimalfragmentsfromsuspensioninseawater,selectingbychemicalcues.Althoughahermatypiccoralsandsomehermatypiccoralsfeedprimarilywithtentacles,mosthermatypiccoralsrelyonciliarymucoidfeedingmechanisms.Themajorityofcoralsexpandandfeedatnight,whereasothersdosoduringtheday.Thestimuligoverningsuchbehaviorarenotyetknown (MUSCATINE, 1973,p.78).Possiblytherugosanpolypshadsimilardevices. vepreculae.Finedenticulesornamentingfaceofseptum(R).verticillate.Arrangedinwhorls;seeumbelliferous (R,T). WALL.Outerwallofacorallite,normallyconsistingofanoutersheath(epitheca)andaninnerdepositoffibroussclerenchyme(narrowperipheralstereozone)(R,T).yardarmcarinae.Oppositelyplacedcarinaethatgiveappearanceofyardarmsalongamasttocrosssectionsofseptum(seezigzagcarinae)(R).zigzagcarinae.Notquiteoppositelyplacedcarinaeonthetwosidesofaseptum(seeyardarmcarinae)(R).zigzagstructure.Diageneticallyinducedzigzaglamellationinsclerenchyme(R,T). ASSUMPTIONSONTHESOFTPARTS trochoid.Solitarycorallitewithsidesregularlyexpandingfromapexatanglesofabout40°(R).tuft.Fineorultrafinestructuralunit,aconeofcrystallitesasseenwithaidofhighpoweropticalorelectronmicroscope(H,R,T).turbinate.Solitarycorallitewithsidesexpandingfromapexatangleofabout70°(R).ultrastructure.Skeletalstructureasseenby-electronmicroscope(H,R,T).umbelliferous.Corallumhavingcorallitesarrangedlikeribsofanumbrella,growingoutwardinwhorls(R,T).uniseriateseptum.Typeinwhichtrabeculaearearrangedinsingleserieswiththeiraxesinmedianplaneofseptum(R,T). POLYP Therugosanpolypisassumedtohavebeenlikeothercnidarianpolyps,acylindricalbodyterminatedaboveandbelowbytransverseoralandaboralbodywalls,witharingorringsoftentacles~ithernearorattheedgeoftheoralbodywall,thetentacleshavingsensory,tactile,andfoodcapturingfunctions(Fig.19).AsinotherAnthozoawithretractileorcontractilepolyps,thescleractinianmouth,andpresumablytherugosanmouth,isconnectedwiththegastrovascularcavity(coelenteronor.enteron)bytheesophaguslikestomodaeum,andtheenteronisradiallyandlongitudinallydividedbysoftplatesormesenteriesthatextendfromtheoraltotheaboralbodywallandinwardfromthecylindrical(column)wall,andwhichmayormaynotbeconnectedtothestomodaeum(i.e.,completeorincomplete).Initsaboralendthescleractinianenteronisfurtherdividedbyradialupfoldsintheaboralbodywall(septalinvaginations)inwhichthecalcareousseptaareformed,andwhichalternatewiththemesenteries.Thebodywallconsistsofthreetissuelayers,twoepithelialandone,themesogloea,supportive.Theinnerepitheliumistheendoderm.Theouterepithelium,theectoderm,ismodifiedontheaboralbodywallinScleractiniaandpresumablyinRugosaalso,bythedevelopmentofcalicoblastcellsinvolvedintheproductionofthecalcareousexoskeleton.Musclefibrilsformingsheetlikemusclefieldsaredevelopedmainlyin
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x