Glossary of Useful Terms

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The 2009 National High School Model United Nations Delegate Preparation Guide GLOSSARY OF USEFUL TERMS ABM: Anti-Ballistic Missile ABSTAIN: to refrain from casting a yes or no vote ACTIVIST: an individual who is extensively and vigorously involved in political activity, either within or outside the governmental system ADJOURN: to suspend a session to another time or place or indefinitely ADJUDGE: to decide or rule upon as a judge AGENDA: a list of specific items of business to be considered
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  The 2009 National High School Model United Nations  Delegate Preparation Guide G LOSSARY OF U SEFUL  T ERMS    ABM : Anti-Ballistic Missile  ABSTAIN : to refrain from casting a yes or no vote  ACTIVIST : an individual who is extensively and vigorously involved in political activity, either within oroutside the governmental system  ADJOURN : to suspend a session to another time or place or indefinitely   ADJUDGE : to decide or rule upon as a judge  AGENDA  : a list of specific items of business to be considered at a legislative session, conference, ormeeting   ALBM : Air Launched Ballistic Missile  ANNEX : to incorporate into a country the territory of another country   APARTHEID : the official policy of racial discrimination that exists in South Africa  ARBITRATION : process by which an outsider is authorized to dictate the terms of a settlement of adispute if a voluntary agreement cannot be reached  ARMISTICE : a temporary peace agreement  ASAT : Anti-Satellite weapon  AUSPICES : protection or patronage  AUTONOMY  : independence, self-government BELLIGERENT : group or nation that is engaged in a war or military conflict BILATERAL : having or involving two sides BOYCOTT : refusing to deal with a person, group, nation, or group of nations so as to punish or show disapproval BREACH OF TREATY: failure to observe the terms of a signed treaty  BUILD DOWN: the theory of building up the weapons arsenals of the US and USSR until equal and thennegotiating reductions in arms from their new equal standing  CAPITALISM : an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods by investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state-control, and by prices, production,and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market CARTEL : an association of industrialists or nations formed to establish an international monopoly   The 2009 National High School Model United Nations  Delegate Preparation Guide CAUCUS : a meeting among delegates to discuss policy and topics outside of the formal meeting  CENSORSHIP : broadly, any government restrictions on speech or writing; more precisely, governmentrestrictions on forms of expression before they are disseminated CENSURE : to blame, criticize adversely, or express disapproval COALITION : combination of two or more factions or parties for the purpose of achieving some politicalgoal COMMUNISM : a totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a stateless society  COMPENSARY  FINANCING: credit designed to help raw material producer members of the IMF intimes of poor markets for their exports COUP   D'ETAT : a sudden and decisive act in politics, usually bringing about a change in governmentunlawfully and by force CRUISE   MISSILE : A long-range jet-propelled, winged-bomb which can be launched from land, sea, or airand targeted by remote control; usually considered to be more accurate and low-flying than traditionalmissiles DECOLONIZATION : process of transferring a colony to a self-governing area DEFLATION : a sustained decrease in the general price level DEMILITARIZE : to free from military control DEPRESSION : a severe economic slump (worse than a recession) characterized by very highunemployment DEREGULATION : the act or process of removing restrictions and regulations DESTABILIZATION : the act of making a government unsteady  DETAINMENT : detention, confinement DEVELOPING   NATIONS : the nations of the world in the process of building a stable economy,government, and/or society, usually with a low per capita income and GNP. DILATORY  : causing delay, repetitive DIPLOMATIC   IMMUNITY  : special privileges accorded to diplomats and their families and staffs by international agreement, including freedom from arrest, search, and taxation DISARMAMENT : the act of disarming; reduction of military forces and equipment DISSEMINATION : the act or process of scattering or state of being scattered; usually referring todistribution of information  The 2009 National High School Model United Nations  Delegate Preparation Guide EASTERN   BLOC : formerly, the group of nations led by the Soviet Union, whose general theory of government was communism EPIDEMIC : An outbreak of an infectious disease in an area where the disease in not already prevalent; anepidemic is confined to a locality, small region, or single country. EXPANSIONISM : the process of broadening a nation's borders EXPROPRIATION : the taking of property into public ownership without compensation, such as theproperty of foreign investors or foreign industry in a nation EXTRADITION : the surrender of a prisoner or fugitive by one state, nation, or legal authority to another FOREIGN   INTERVENTION : interference by one nation into the affairs of another FORUM : an assembly for discussing questions of foreign interests GATT : General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; the agreement precursor to the current World TradeOrganization, started in 1944 during the Bretton Woods Conference GNP : Gross National Product; the total value of the goods and services produced in a nation during aspecific period of time HEU : Highly Enriched Uranium; material necessary for the construction of nuclear weapons ICBM : Intercontinental Ballistic Missile; a missile, normally with multiple warheads, with a long range IDEOLOGY  : a comprehensive set of political, economic, and social views or ideas, particularly concerned with the form and role of government INFLATION : a sustained increase in the general price level INTEGRITY  : honesty; sincerity; trustworthiness INTER     ALIA  : among other things INTERNAL    AFFAIRS : having to do with operations within a nation; domestic affairs  JUNTA  : a political or military group holding power after a revolution; a political faction; an assembly orcouncil for deliberation or administration, especially in Spanish-speaking nations  JURISDICTION : authority vested in a court to hear and decide certain types of cases; term literally means to say the law LESS   DEVELOPED   COUNTRIES   (LDC): countries whose share of output composed of agriculturalproducts, mining, and the like is relatively high, which engage in relatively little industrial high-technology activity, and whose per capita incomes are generally comparatively low  MANDATE : a commission given to one nation by a group of nations to administer the government andaffairs of a territory or colony   The 2009 National High School Model United Nations  Delegate Preparation Guide Millennium   Development   Goals   (MDGs) : the product of the UN Millennium Summit and 2000Millennium Declaration; these eight goals focus on major developmental hurdles to be met by 2015. Goalsinclude reducing child and maternal mortality rates, fighting HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, andpromoting gender equality. MEDIATION : process in which an outsider is brought into a dispute negotiation in the hopes that thisperson can lead the two sides to a voluntary agreement through persuasion MULTINATIONAL   CORPORATION : a company having branches in several nations NATIONAL   DEBT : a government's total indebtedness, which has resulted from previous deficits NATIONALIZE : to invest control or ownership of industry in the national government NATURAL   RESOURCES : those actual or potential forms of wealth supplied by nature, such as coal, oil, water power, arable land, etc. NGO : Non-Governmental Organization. NON -  ALIGNED : a nation not politically tied to another, usually taking a neutral position between largepower blocs OLIGARCHY  : a system of government in which political power is exercised by a small group of people,usually self-selected ORPHAN   DISEASES : isolated yet deadly diseases that have no cure as yet PANDEMIC : when an epidemic crosses national and/or continental boundaries, it takes on pandemic status PATENT : a temporary grant of monopoly rights over an invention PEACEBUILDING: term connoting activities that go beyond crisis intervention such as longer-termdevelopment and the building of governance structures and institutions. It includes building the capacity of non-governmental organizations.  PEACEKEEPING: a United Nations presence in the field (normally involving civilian and military personnel) that, with the consent of the conflicting parties, implements or monitors arrangements relating tothe control of conflicts and their resolution, or ensures the safe delivery of humanitarian relief  PEACEKEEPING   FORCE : a force sent to maintain, enforce, or intervene to achieve a cessation of hostilities between opposing armies, nations, or other groups PLENARY    SESSION a session attended by all of its qualified members PROCEDURAL : of or relating to procedure PROLIFERATION : spreading; propagation PROTECTIONISM : the process of government economic protection for domestic producers throughrestrictions on foreign competition PROTECTORATE : a weak nation under the protection and partial control of a stronger nation
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