Histology Microtest 29th - 30th of November

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Histology (Espen Gavin Ph.D) Red Blood cells (Air dryed, fixed & methylene blue and eosin)  Erythrocytes (packed with the oxygen-carrying protein – Haemoglobin)  The anucleate cells (biconcav disks witouth nuclei White blood cells  Leucocytes  Granulocytes (polymorphs)  Neutrophils Nucleus consist of 2-5 lobes (usually three), wich are connected to the bridges of the chromatin.   Eosinophils Bilobed nucleus. Stained by eosin and are well visible. Basophils They are named after their chara
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  Histology (Espen Gavin Ph.D) Red Blood cells (Air dryed, fixed & methylene blue and eosin)  Erythrocytes (packed with the oxygen-carrying protein  – Haemoglobin)  The anucleate cells (biconcav disks witouth nuclei White blood cells  Leucocytes    Granulocytes (polymorphs)  NeutrophilsNucleus consist of 2-5 lobes (usually three), wich are connectedto the bridges of the chromatin.  EosinophilsBilobed nucleus. Stained by eosin and are well visible.  Basophils They are named after their characteristics of staining  .Nucleus are S-shaped/bilobed. Specific granules are basophilic(deep blue). Higly soluble in water and can be dissolved duringblood smear preparation -> difficulties of identify basophils inblood smears.    Agranulocytes (mononuclear leucocytes)  LymphocytesDiameter of 6-8   µm. So they are called small lymphocytes.They are predominant in the peripheral blood. Contains sphericalnucleus. Its chromatin is condenced so the nucleus is intenslystained. A few azurophilic may be present.T-lymphocytes can be distinguished from B-lymphocytes byimmunocytochemical methods.  Monocytes Do not have specific cytoplasmic granules but they do contain Azurophilic granules  Largest leukocytes. Oval or kidney-shaped nucleus. Basophiliccytoplasm. And contains very fine Azurophilic granules Definition of Azurophilic granule:   An azurophil is an object readily stained with an azure dye.  [1]  Azurophils includecertain cytoplasmic granules [2]  in white blood cells andhyperchromatin,imparting a burgundy or merlot coloration. Neutrophils in particular are known for containing azurophils loaded with a wide variety of anti-microbial defensins that fuse with phagocytic vacuoles.wikipedia  Platelets (Trombocytes)      Non-nucleated disc-like fragments of megakaryocytes found inbone marrow.    Trombocytes are only 2-4µm in diameter.  Blood vessels Arteries:  Composed of three concentric layers (tunicae) 1. Tunica intima (innermost layer)  2. Tunica media (an intermediate layer)  3. Tunica adventitia (outermost layer)   see page 43 in the handbook for more discriptions.   Elastic arteries:  Large elastic arteries include the Aorta and its large branches + the pulmonary trunk.Elastic: important for the blood flow. Main function is to transport the blood away fromthe heart.  Tunica intimaEndothelium, subendothelial CT, internal elastic lamina  Tunica mediaParticulary thick. 40-60 layers. Elastic laminae and between elastic laminaeyou will find smooth muscle vells, reticular fibres and amorphous groundsubstance.  Tunica AdventitiaThin layer. LCT. Vasa vasorum, lymphatic vessels and nerves. Muscular (medium-sized) atery and vein   Arteries  Tunica intimaEndothelium, LCT, collagen and elastic fibres. Internal elastic lamina.  Tunica mediaThick muscular layer with 20-40 layers with smooth muscle cells (circularly orspirally. Between the layers there is a small amount of CT. Ext. Elastic lamina.  Tunica adventitiaLCT with vasa varorum, lymphatics, nerve fibres, adipose cells, fibroblasts andelastic fibres. Veins    Tunica intimaVery simmular to artery  Tunica mediaRelatively thin and consist of small bundles of smooth muscle cells (ratherthan layers). Reticular fibres and a fine network of elastic fibres.  Tunica adventitiaThickest layer composed of many longitudinal collagen fibres wich may becombined with longitudinally bundles of oriented smooth muscle cells.   Continous capillaries   Vagina (hahahhahahhaha i said vagina)  Wall of vagina consist of three layers1. Tunica mucosa2. Tunica muscularis3. Tunica adventitiaThe lamina propria of the vaginal mucosa is composed of LCT very rich inblood vessels.The capillaries in lamina propria are very smal (7-9µm) composed only of asingle layer of endothelial cells and their underlying basal lamina.Non-keratinized stratified squamos epithelia.The nuclei of the endothelial cells are small flattened (squamos) and thecytoplasm indistinct.Pericytes, special mesenchymal cells with long cytoplasmic processes, wichpartly surround the endothelial cells.Lumina of some capillaries are closed.In deeper portion of the vaginal mucosa, larger blood vessels (Venules orsmall veins) are present. The endothelium of these vessels are clearly visible.
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