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Welding.Com Resource Center - Technical Articles - welding, equipment, supply, mi... Page 1 of 21 CONTACT US AT 800.788.1298 Home Contact Follow us on Twitter Watch Welding Videos Advertise on Welding.Com JOINING WELDERS SINCE 1995 HISTORY WELDING SYMBOLS TERMS RESOURCES SCHOOLS/CAREERS FORUM ADVERTISE HERE Articles AC TIG Welding on Aluminum The aluminations series of technical articles provides answers to commonly asked questions about TIG welding aluminum. Section I. Print Read
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  Articles AC TIG Welding on Aluminum Thealuminations series of technical articlesprovides answers to commonly askedquestions about TIG welding aluminum. Applications Engineering Q & A .When trying to find the least expensiveway to add a gas tungsten arc welder there may be some factors to consider. Burnback Wire Stubbing Porosity Q& A Problems when MIG weldingaluminum often result from aninadequate or improperly adjusted wirefeed system. For the last 20 years For TIG weldingaluminum, the best results might comefrom an inverter-based AC/DC TIGmachine that incorporates advancedSquarewave technology, such as theDynasty™ DX. Microprocessor Q & A Most of us don'trealize that many items we use everyday have a microprocessor chip inside.This Q & A section answers the mostcommon questions. More.... Section I. Print Reading 3-1. GENERAL a. Drawings. Drawing or sketching is a universal language used to convey all necessary informationto the individual who will fabricate or assemble an object. Prints are also used to illustrate howvarious equipment is operated, maintained, repaired, or lubricated. The srcinal drawings for printsare made either by directly drawing or tracing a drawing on a translucent tracing paper or cloth usingwaterproof (India) ink or a special pencil. The srcinal drawing is referred to as a tracing or master copy.b. Reproduction Methods. Various methods of reproduction have been developed which will produceprints of different colors from the master copy.(1) One of the first processes devised to reproduce a tracing produced white lines on a bluebackground, hence the term blueprints .(2) A patented paper identified as BW paper produces prints with black lines on a whitebackground.(3) The ammonia process, or Ozalids , produces prints with either black, blue, or maroon lines on awhite background.(4) Vandyke paper produces a white line on a dark brown background.(5) Other reproduction methods are the mimeograph machine, ditto machine, and photostaticprocess. 3-2. PARTS OF A DRAWING a. Title Block. The title block contains the drawing number and all the information required to identifythe part or assembly represented. Approved military prints will include the name and address of theGovernment Agency or organization preparing the drawing, the scale, the drafting record,authentication, and the date.b. Revision Block. Each drawing has a revision block which is usually located in the upper rightcorner. All changes to the drawing are noted in this block. Changes are dated and identified by anumber or letter. If a revision block is not used, a revised drawing may be shown by the addition of aletter to the srcinal number.c. Drawing Number. All drawings are identified by a drawing number. If a print has more than onesheet and each sheet has the same number, this information is included in the number block,indicating the sheet number and the number of sheets in the series.d. Reference Numbers and Dash Numbers. Reference numbers that appear in the title block refer toother print numbers. When more than one detail is shown on a drawing, dashes and numbers arefrequently used. If two parts are to be shown in one detail drawing, both prints will have the samedrawing number plus a dash and an individual number such as 7873102-1 and 7873102-2.e. Scale. The scale of the print is indicated in one of the spaces within the title block. It indicates thesize of the drawing as compared with the actual size of the part. Never measure a drawing--usedimensions. The print may have been reduced in size from the srcinal drawing.f. Bill of Material. A special block or box on the drawing may contain a list of necessary stock to makean assembly. It also indicates the type of stock, size, and specific amount required. 3-3. CONSTRUCTION LINES a. Full Lines (A, fig. 3-1). Full lines represent the visible edges or outlines of an object. Visit Our SponsorsJOINING WELDERS SINCE 1995 CONTACT US AT 800.788.1298 HomeContact Follow us on Twitter  Watch Welding VideosAdvertise on Welding.Com HISTORYWELDING SYMBOLSTERMSRESOURCESSCHOOLS/CAREERSFORUMADVERTISE HERE   Page 1 of 21Welding.Com Resource Center -Technical Articles -welding, equipment, supply, mi...10-03-2012  b. Hidden Lines (A, fig. 3-1). Hidden lines are made of short dashes which represent hidden edges of an object.c. Center Lines (B, fig. 3-1). Center lines are made with alternating short and long dashes. A linethrough the center of an object is called a center line.d. Cutting Plane Lines (B, fig. 3-1). Cutting plane lines are dashed lines, generally of the same widthas the full lines, extending through the area being cut. Short solid wing lines at each end of thecutting line project at 90 degrees to that line and end in arrowheads which point in the direction of viewing. Capital letters or numerals are placed just beyond the points of the arrows to designate thesection.e. Dimension Lines (A, fig. 3-1). Dimension lines are fine full lines ending in arrowheads. They areused to indicate the measured distance between two points.f. Extension Lines (A, fig. 3-1). Extension lines are fine lines from the outside edges or intermediatepoints of a drawn object. They indicate the limits of dimension lines.g. Break Lines (C, fig. 3-1). Break lines are used to show a break in a drawing and are used when itis desired to increase the scale of a drawing of uniform cross section while showing the true size bydimension lines. There are two kinds of break lines: short break and long break. Short break lines areusually heavy, wavy, semiparallel lines cutting off the object outline across a uniform section. Longbreak lines are long dash parallel lines with each long dash in the line connected to the next by a 2 or sharp wave line. Section II. WELD AND WELDING SYMBOLS 3-4. GENERAL Welding cannot take its proper place as an engineering tool unless means are provided for conveying the information from the designer to the workmen. Welding symbols provide the means of placing complete welding information on drawings. The scheme for symbolic representation of weldson engineering drawings used in this manual is consistent with the third angle method of projection.This is the method predominantly used in the United States.The joint is the basis of reference for welding symbols. The reference line of the welding symbol (fig.3-2) is used to designate the type of weld to be made, its location, dimensions, extent, contour, andother supplementary information. Any welded joint indicated by a symbol will always have an arrowside and an other side. Accordingly, the terms arrow side, other side, and both sides are used hereinto locate the weld with respect to the joint.   History |Welding Symbols|Terms|Resources|Schools/Careers|Forum|Advertise Here|Anti-Spam PolicyCopyright 2010 © Welding.Com All Rights ReservedDesigned and programmed by Headquarters.Com   Page 2 of 21Welding.Com Resource Center -Technical Articles -welding, equipment, supply, mi...10-03-2012  The tail of the symbol is used for designating the welding and cutting processes as well as thewelding specifications, procedures, or the supplementary information to be used in making the weld.If a welder knows the size and type of weld, he has only part of the information necessary for makingthe weld. The process, identification of filler metal that is to be used, whether or not peening or rootchipping is required, and other pertinent data must be related to the welder. The notation to beplaced in the tail of the symbol indicating these data is to be establish by each user. If notations arenot used, the tail of the symbol may be omitted. 3- 5. ELMENTS OF A WELDING SYMBOL  A distinction is made between the terms weld symbol and welding symbol . The weld symbol (fig.3-3) indicates the desired type of weld. The welding symbol (fig. 3-2) is a method of representing theweld symbol on drawings. The assembled welding symbol consists of the following eight elements,or any of these elements as necessary: reference line, arrow, basic weld symbols, dimensions andother data, supplementary symbols, finish symbols, tail, and specification, process, or other reference. The locations of welding symbol elements with respect to each other are shown in figure 3-2. 3-6. BASIC WELD SYMBOLS a. General. Weld symbols are used to indicate the welding processes used in metal joiningoperations, whether the weld is localized or all around , whether it is a shop or field weld, and thecontour of welds. These basic weld symbols are summarized below and illustrated in figure 3-3.b. Arc and Gas Weld Symbols. See figure 3-3.c. Resistance Weld Symbols. See figure 3-3.d. Brazing, Forge, Thermit, Induction, and Flow Weld Symbols.(1) These welds are indicated by using a process or specification reference in the tail of the weldingsymbol as shown in figure 3-4.(2) When the use of a definite process is required (fig. 3-5), the process may be indicated by one or    Page 3 of 21Welding.Com Resource Center -Technical Articles -welding, equipment, supply, mi...10-03-2012  more of the letter designations shown in tables 3-1 and 3-2. NOTE Letter designations have not been assigned to arc spot, resistance spot, arc seam, resistance seam,and projection welding since the weld symbols used are adequate.(3) When no specification, process, or other symbol, the tail may be omitted (fig. 3-6). reference isused with a welding Page 4 of 21Welding.Com Resource Center -Technical Articles -welding, equipment, supply, mi...10-03-2012
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