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Page 178: Children differ greatly in the age at which specific attachment occurs. Among the 60 babies in the Schaffer and Emerson study, 1 showed specific attachment at 22 weeks, whereas 2 did not display it until after their first birthdays (Van IJzendoorn & Sagi, 1999). Cross-cultural differences also play a part in this development. Mary Ainsworth found that infants in Uganda show specific attachment at about 6 months of age—a month or so earlier than the Scottish infants studied by Schaffer
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  Page 178: Children differ greatly in the age at which specific attachment occurs. Among the 60 babiesin the Schaffer and Emerson study, 1 showed specific attachment at 22 weeks, whereas 2 did notdisplay it until after their first birthdays (Van IJzendoorn & Sagi, 1999).Cross-cultural differences also play a part in this development. Mary Ainsworth found thatinfants in Uganda show specific attachment at about 6 months of age — a month or so earlier thanthe Scottish infants studied by Schaffer and Emerson (1964). Similarly, it was found that separationprotest occurred earlier among infants in Guatemala than among those in the United States (Lesteret al., 1974). Researchers attribute the precocity of the Ugandan and Guatemalan infants to culturalfactors. Ugandan infants spend most of their time in close physical contact with their mothers (theyare carried about on their mother's back), and they are rarely separated from her.Generally, American infants are placed in their own rooms shortly after birth. Suchseparation is virtually unknown in Guatemala, where most rural families live in a one-room rancho.Other research findings with a small sample of Colombian mothers and infants support Ainsworth'sconcepts of attachment theory (Posada et al., 2004).Schaffer (1971, 1996) suggests that the onset of separation protest is directly related to achild's level of  object permanence . Social attachment depends on the ability of infants todifferentiate between their mother and strangers and on their ability to recognize that their mothercontinues to exist even when she is not visible. In terms of Piaget's cognitive theory, outlined inChapter 5, these abilities do not appear until late in the sensorimotor stage, Indeed, Silvia M. Bell(197D) finds that in some instances the concept of  person permanence — the notion that anindividual exists independently of immediate visibility — might appear in a child before the concept of object permanence. Studies by other researchers also confirm that protests over parentaldepartures are related to a child's level of cognitive development (Kagan, 1997; Klaus & Klaus, 1998). How Do Attachments Form?  Psychologists have advanced two explanations of the srcins ordeterminants of attachment, one based on an ethological perspective and the other on a learningperspective. Psychoanalytically oriented ethologist John Bowlby (1969, 1988) said that attachmentbehaviours have biological underpinnings that can be best understood from a Darwinian evolution-ary perspective. For the human species to survive despite an extended period of infant immaturityand vulnerability, both mothers and infants are endowed with innate tendencies to be close to eachother. This reciprocal bonding functioned to protect the infant from predators when humans livedin small nomadic groups (Bowlby, 1969, 1988).According to Bowlby, human infants are biologically pre-adapted with a number of behavioural systems ready to be activated by appropriate elicitors or releasers within theenvironment. Close physical contact — especially hold-ing, caressing, and rocking — often soothesand quiets a distressed, fussing infant. Indeed, an infant's crying literally compels attention from acaregiver, and smiles accomplish much the same end (Grossman, Grossman, & Kindler, 2005).  Page 333: Children of Divorce Each child reacts differently to the breakup of a family, depending on the child's age andtemperament and the parents' competence in handling the situation (Hartup & van Lieshout, 1995).Children ages 6 to 12 need to know what the separation is about. Their concerns are very differentfrom the concerns of parents, and parents can be too occupied to notice. Children of separation-divorce have loyalty stresses (Schlesinger, 1998). High levels of parental conflict have a significantimpact on children regard-less of family structure (Vandewater & Lansford, 1998). To adjust to thedivorce, children need a sense of safety and closeness to their parents and need to have their basicneeds met. Children feel lower levels of conflict when their parents cooperate in matters relating tochildcare.Wallerstein and Kelly (1980; Wallerstein, Lewis, & Blakeslee, 2000) found that children havesix psychological tasks to complete after a divorce, and the ease of completing these tasks is relatedto how well the parents handle the divorce. These include: (1) accepting that the divorce is real; (2)getting back into previous routines like school and other activities; (3) resolving the loss of thefamily, which means having a distant or absent parent, restructured fam-ily traditions, and loss of security; (4) resolving anger and self-blame, followed by forgiveness; (5) accepting that the divorcewill be permanent; and (6) believing in relation-ships. Many schools offer children of separation-divorce the opportunity to join support programs such as Banana Splits. Children get together inpeer groups with a school social worker or school psychologist to share their feelings andexperiences and to give and get advice. These pro-grams teach children how to cope with theirfeelings of loss, fear, helplessness, anxiety, or anger.Divorce affects children's development in complex ways, with many confounding factorsinvolved. While most children adjust in time, some are troubled for years after the divorce (Kelly,2007). In one study, children were interviewed a few years after their parents had divorced(children were then ages 6 to 8), and a majority of the girls and boys were well adjusted. Mostchildren lived with their mothers, about 5 per cent lived with their fathers, and the rest lived withother kin (often grandparents) or in foster homes. Overall, children who have a stable, lovingrelationship with both parents have fewer emotional scars (Ahrons, 2007; Kelly, 2007).
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