Illustrated Book of Trees Hungraphics

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THE ILLUSTRATED BOOK OF A visual guide to more than 250 species CO ! ULTANT EDITOR: Dr. Eric A Bourdo Jr . .P 1I 8 5,j'\l.. ... M~NI1ER L, J ... II r a .s y LIMITED O()Oh. L.ONDON A Salamander Book Published by Salamander Books Limited 8 Blenheim Court Brewery Road London N7 9NT © Salamander Books Ltd, 2001 ISBN 184065 0834 2345678910 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electron
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  THEILLUSTRATEDBOOKOF A visual guideto more than250 species CO ! ULTANTEDITOR: Dr.EricABourdoJr. .P 1I8 L, J... II r a .s y 5,j'\l.....M~NI1ERO()Oh.LIMITED L.ONDON  ASalamanderBook PublishedbySalamanderBooksLimited8BlenheimCourtBreweryRoadLondon N79NT© SalamanderBooksLtd, 20012345678910 ISBN 1840650834 All rightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofSalamanderBooks.AllcorrespondenceconcerningthecontentofthisvolumeshouldbeaddressedtoSalamanderBooksLtd.EditorPollyBoydDesignandlayoutMickHodsonAssociatesFilmsetSXComposing,EnglandColourseparationP & WSingaporePrintedinItaly  CONTENTS Introduction6 Abies (SilverFirs)10AcerUV![lples)18 AesClLius (HorseChestnuts)24 AiZainthu.s aW,ssima (TreeofHeaven)27 Alnus (Alders)28 }\rburus (StrawberryTrees)30 Betula (Birches)31 Busus.sem,pervirens (Box)3.5 Ga1pinus (Hornbeams)3.J Ga'ljn (Hickories) 39 Castanea (Sweet Chestnuts) 42 Carctlpa bignrmioic/es (IndianBeanTree)44 Cedrus (Cedars) 45 Cereis (Redbuds andJudas Tree) 48 Ohamclecyparis (Nee-cypresses)50 Comus (Dogwoods)54 Oory.lus (Hazels)56 Cotinus coggygriCl, (VenetianSumac)58Cmraegus(Hawthorns)59 Cryptomeriaja:ponica. (JapaneseRedCedar)62Oupressus(TrueCypresses)64 DoxddtainlVolucrata (Dove Tree)67 Diospyros (Perstmrnons)68 Fagus (Beeches)70 FrcuC'inu,s (Ashes) 74 Ginkgo biloba (MaidenhairTree)77 Gleditsuxtriaeanthus (HoneyLocust)78 Haiesiamoruiceta (SnowdropTree)79 flex aqtt'i/olitt1H (Holly)80 Juglans (Walnuts) 81 Juniperus (Junipers)84- Laburnum (Laburnums) 87 Larix (Larches)88 LaurusnobiHs (SweetBay)91 Liquidctmba1' (SweetGums)92 Li-rioclendTOl1 (TulipTrees)93 Magn{)lj.a (Magnolias)94 Mahls (CrabApples)97 Metasequoiagfcyptostroboides (Daw11 Redwood)100 MoTUs (Mulberrtes)101 Nyssasylvatica (Tupelo) 103 Olea€uropcwa (EuropeanOlive)104 Picea (Spruces) 105 Pinus (Pines)111 Platanus (Planes)125 Populus(Poplars)127 Prumus (Cherries)131 Pseudolariaamabili.s (GoldenLarch)141 Pseudot..~·l1ga menziesii (DouglasFir)142 Pteroca1Y(~ (WingNuts)143 Pyrus (Pears)144 Quercus (Oaks)146 Rhus (Sumacs) 151 Robiniapseudoacacia (LocustTree)152 Salitc (Willows) 153 Sambucus (Elders)157 Sassafras albidum (Sassafras)159 Sequoia sempenJirerk<; (CoastRedwood)160 &qtw'iadend1lJ11.giganteum (GiantSequoia) 161 Sophora (Sophoras)162 Sorbus (Whlteheams,RowansandServiceTrees)163 Scyra,:'Cjaponic:a (SnowbellTree)166 Taxodill:m (DeciduousCypresses)167 TaOO'lts (Yews) 168 Thuja ('rhujas) 170 TiNa (Limes).171 Thuga (Hemlocks) 175 Ulmus (Elms)178 Zelko'IJa (Zelkovas)182LeafTypes184Glossary186Index188  INTRODUCTION 11 TlMT IS t\ TREE:- Althoughtheconceptofatreeisafamiliarone,itsexactdefinition VV iseluive.Whileit is possibletodivide the PlantKingdomintovariousgroupsbymorphologicalcharacteri'tic,treesdonotformoneofthesegroups,butpanmanyofthem.Thuswecannotdefineatreeinthesameway ~IS wedefine,forexample,aconifer,anoakorabeech.Oneconvenientdefmitiouistosaythatatreeisawoodyplantrowingonasinlestemtoatleastsixmetres UlJI. Wemustconsider,however,whatwewouldcallatreeofonly.fiveoreventhreemetres tall, oronewithtwo Or eventhreemainterns.Aheightdecreasesandthenumberofstemsincreasestheplantbecomesmorelikeashrub,definedasawoodyplant with numerousstemsarising'fromthea.But[henwhatofashrubwithonlytwoorevenasinglestern?Thefactthatth I' isnocleardefinitionbetweenatreeandashrubcanbeseenbylookingatthewayplantsaregroupedandnamed.Withinasinglegenusthedisrri-butlonoftreeandhrubsvaries.Manygenera,suchasbiesandFagus, contain only trees,while otherconsistofa mixture oftrees and shrubs. Oaks (Quercus)arebestknownasmagnificenttrees,buttherearelnfactmanyshrubbyspecies,parriularlyinwarm, dry areassuchasCalifornia,andwhilemostpines IHe laretree,everalmountainspeciegrownaturallyalowshrubs.Conversely,somegeneraweknowbest [L hrubshavelessfamiliartreemembers,forexampleBuddlejasrnaking 1() ITl [alltreesarefound i MexicoandCenrralAmerica. At thepecies level,wemay thinkwe aresafeindefiningatree.This,however, is notalway the case.Manyspeciesthatrowoverawidealtituderangemayform large (Teeslowdownburonlylowshrubsatbighaltitudes.Inaddition.somespecies whichare normallytrees ean giverise to shrubbyformsasshown by (he numerousdwarfooifer culdvat dingardens,oftentheprogenyofenormousforesttrees. THE\\ORLD'SFORESTS IthasbeenestimatedthatWithoutman'sinfluence,some40percentofthelandsur-faceoftheearthwouldhecoveredbyforest,theonlyareasnotdominatedbytreesbemgrasslands,tundra,thetopofhighmountainsanddeserts.Foresttypesareextremelydiveredepndingonclimate,butgenerallyanincreaseintemperatureandavailablemollureleads to anincreasednumberofspecies. In themostnortherlyregion,whereroundwaterisfrozenformuchoftheyear,treesneed to beabletosur-vivenotonlyinconditionsofdroughtassevereasinthedesert,butalsoinextremelylowtemperatures.Theevergreenneedle-likeleavesofconifers,whichloselittlemois-rure,adaptthemextremelywellforthisharshenvironmentandthusthemostnortherlyforestconsi. t ofconiferssuchasAbies.PiceaandPinus.Thesamefeaturesal 0 enableonifers [Q formfore t furthersouth,forexampleinhighmountainsandbot,dryreionswherefewothertreeswillsurvive.Temperateforestscontainamuchgreaterdiversityofspeciesthandothenorth-emconlferouforests.Here.withlessharshconditions.toendure,treescanshowa 6
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