Important Eartquake Data

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  RISK TARGETED SEISMIC DESIGN OF RC FRAME BUILDINGS A DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY in EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING (with specialization in structural dynamics) DEPARTMENT OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE ROORKEE-247667 (INDIA) MAY, 2017 i CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION   I hereby declare that the work which I being presented in this dissertation entitled, “ Risk Targeted Seismic Design of RC Frame Buildings ”, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of degree of Master of Technology in Earthquake Engineering with specialization in Structural Dynamics submitted in the Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee is an authentic record of my own work carried out during the period from March 2016 to May 2017 under the supervision of Dr. Yogendra Singh , Professor and Head, Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee and Dr. Dr. Dominik H. Lang , Head of Department, Earthquake Hazard and Risk, NORSAR foundation, Norway. The matter embodied in this Dissertation has not been submitted by me for the award of any other degree or diploma of this Institute or any other University/Institute. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. (Dr. Dr. Dominik H. Lang) (Dr. Yogendra Singh) Head of Department Professor and Head Earthquake Hazard and Risk Department of Earthquake Engineering NORSAR Foundation Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee Norway Roorkee, India ii ABSTRACT Generally the earthquake resistant construction makes use of uniform hazard spectrum to design a structure. This uniform hazard spectrum is assumed to possess uniform probability of exceedance throughout the nation i.e. 2% in 50 years. But designing a structure using uniform hazard spectrum does not lead to uniform collapse risk across the nation. One of the reasons for this inconsistency is due to the fact that there is uncertainty in the collapse capacity of the structure. Therefore this report focus on designing the structure using risk targeted ground motions. In risk targeted approach the ground motions are adjusted in such a way so that we can achieve the risk as targeted. In this report, two sites are selected in Delhi and the risk has been evaluated at the selected sites by convolving site specific hazard curve and fragility curve. A ten storey RC frame  building has been modelled and designed using (i) uniform hazard spectrum (ii) Risk targeted site specific response spectrum. The risk targeted hazard has been obtained using the target  risk of 1% probability of collapse in 50 years. An iterative procedure is followed to obtain the design hazard level corresponding to targeted risk. The fragility curve of the building is obtained at the selected sites using (i) Nonlinear static  pushover analysis, and (ii) Incremental dynamic analysis. Further, collapse risk is estimated for those buildings designed using uniform hazard spectrum and risk targeted hazard level. It has been observed that even designing the building for risk targeted ground motions neither results into collapse risk as targeted nor does it lead to uniform collapse risk. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMNET I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to my elite guide & mentor Dr. Yogendra Singh , Professor and Head, Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee and Dr. Dr. Dominik H.Lang , Head of Department, Earthquake Hazard and Risk NORSAR foundation, Norway for being helpful and a great source of inspiration. I am thankful to him for his persistent interest, constant encouragement, vigilant supervision and critical evaluation. His encouraging attitude has always been a source of inspiration for me. His helping nature, invaluable suggestions and scholastic guidance are culminated in the form of present work. I would like to thank Mr. Mitesh Surana, Mr. Dhiraj Raj and Mr. Aakash Khatri for their help and valuable discussion during most part of my dissertation work. I am also thankful to my friends for their help, support and constant discussion throughout the report. I would also like to thank my friends Mayur Pisode, Shadab Ahmad, Shubham, Shabin Chand and Swanand Patil for their contribution behind the successful completion of my Thesis. Lastly but most importantly I would seek blessings from my parents, love from my brothers without their sacrifice and unconditional love I would not have reached so far and me being able to go for a higher education would have been a distant dream. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION i ABSTRACT ii ACKNOWLEDGEMNET iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF FIGURES vii LIST OF TABLES ix 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN 1 1.1.1 Conventional Force-Based Design 1 1.1.2 Performance Based Design 2 1.1.3 Risk Targeted Seismic Design 2 1.2 SEISMIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT 2 1.3 SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT 3 1.4 ANALYTICAL STUDIES BASED ON NONLINEAR STATIC PUSHOVER ANALYSIS 4 1.4.1 Estimation of Building Response 5 1.4.2 Damage States and Limit States 5 1.5 BUILDING FRAGILITY CURVES 6 1.6 ANALYTICAL STUDIES BASED ON TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS 7 1.6.1 Ground Motion Record Sets 8 1.6.1.1 Scaling of Ground Motion Records 8  1.6.1.2 Scaling of Records 9 1.6.2 Background on Assessment of Collapse Capacity 9 v 1.7 SEISMIC RISK ASSESSMENT 11 1.8 OBJECTIVES 11 1.9 ORGANISATION OF THE DISSERATAION 12 2 RISK TARGETED HAZARD 13 2.1 INTRODUCTION 13 2.2 UNIFORM HAZARD SPECTRUM 14 2.3 RISK ESTIMATION BY CONVOLUTION OF HAZARD AND FRAGILITY CURVE 15 2.4 ITERATIVE CALCULATION OF RISK TARGETED HAZARD 15 2.5 RISK CALCULATION 17 2.5.1 Site-Specific Response Spectrum 18 2.5.2 Site-Specific Hazard Curve 21 2.5.3 Risk Targeted Ground Motions 23 3 COLLAPSE RISK OF A CODE DESIGNED BUILDING 31 3.1 INTRODUCTION 31 3.2 BUILDING DESCRIPTION 31 3.3 MODELLING OF RC FRAME BUILDINGS 31 3.3.1 Effective Stiffness of RC Frame Members 33 3.3.2 Inelastic Modelling of RC Frame Members 34 3.3.3 Modelling of Flexural Yielding and Axial Force-Moment Interaction 34 3.4 LINEAR ANALYSIS OF RC FRAME BUILDING 35 3.5 FRAGILITY ANALYSIS 37 3.5.1 Non-Linear Static Pushover Analysis 37 3.5.2 Incremental Dynamic Analysis 39 3.6 DEVELOPMENT OF SEISMIC FRAGILITY CURVES 44 vi 3.6.1 Non-Linear Static Analysis 44 3.6.2 Incremental Dynamic Analysis 46 3.7 RISK ESTIMATION 47 4 COLLAPSE RISK OF A BUILDING DESIGN USING RISK TARGETED HAZARD 52 4.1 INTRODUCTION 52 4.2 RISK TARGETED SITE SPECIFIC RESPONSE SPECTRUM 53 4.3 DESIGN OF RC FRAME BUILDING USING RISK TARGETED HAZARD 54 4.4 RISK ESTIMATION 56 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK 61 5.1 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK 61 REFERENCES 62 vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Damage states and limit states (HAZUS MH MR-1 2003) 6 Figure 1.2 Seismic fragility curves for the four damage states (HAZUS MH MR-1 2003) 7 Figure 1.3 Incremental dynamic analysis response plot (FEMA P695) 10 Figure 1.4 Collapse fragility curve (FEMA P695) 10 Figure 2.1 Development of uniform hazard spectrum from hazard curves at distinct spectral  periods (Baker 2008) 14  Figure 2.2 Iterative calculation process required for the computation of risk-targeted hazard maps (Silva et al. 2014) 17 Figure 2.3 Location of sites for the site specific assessment study (Delhi Micro-zonation Report, 2014) 19 Figure 2.4 Site specific response spectrum at MCE for all the selected sites 20 Figure 2.5 Site Specific response spectrum at DBE for all the selected sites 21 Figure 2.6 Site-specific hazard curves for short period spectral acceleration, Ss (m/s2) 23 Figure 2.7 Site-specific hazard curves for short period spectral acceleration, Ss (m/s2) 23 Figure 2.8 Collapse probability function satisfying the conditions specified in ASCE standard 24 Figure 2.9 Iterative procedure for risk targeted hazard at 0.1 sec spectral period at Shikarpur site 26 Figure2.10 Iterative procedure for risk targeted hazard at 1 sec spectral period at Shikarpur site 27 Figure2.11 Iterative procedure for risk targeted hazard at 0.1 sec spectral period at Akshardham site 29 Figure2.12 Iterative procedure for risk targeted hazard at 1 sec spectral period at Akshardham site 30 Figure3.1 Detailed Plan of RC Frame building 32 Figure3.2 Sectional Elevation of Building 32 Figure3.3 Generalized Force-Deformation relationship for RC Member (ASCE 41-13) 35 Figure 3.4 Pushover curve of the RC frame building designed using UHS in longitudinal and transverse direction 38 viii Figure 3.5 Pushover curve of the RC frame building designed using risk targeted site specific response spectrum in longitudinal and transverse direction at Shikarpur and Akshardham site respectively 39 Figure 3.6 Incremental dynamic analysis response plot for the RC frame building design using UHS 43 Figure 3.7 Incremental dynamic response plot for the RC frame building designed using risk targeted hazard at Shikarpur site 43 Figure 3.8 Convolution of site-specific hazard curves and fragility curves to evaluate collapse risk for the longitudinal and transverse direction at Shikarpur and Akshardham respectively 48 Figure 3.9 Convolution of site specific hazard curve and fragility curve at Shikarpur and Akshardham respectively 50 Figure 4.2 Convolution of site-specific hazard curves and fragility curves to evaluate collapse risk for the longitudinal and transverse direction at Shikarpur and Akshardham site respectively 57 Figure 4.3 Comparison of fragility curve of the buildings designed using risk targeted hazard with ideally obtained fragility curve using nonlinear static analysis 58 Figure 4.4 Convolution of site-specific hazard curves and fragility curves to evaluate collapse risk at Shikarpur site 59 Figure 4.5 Comparison of fragility curve of the building designed using risk targeted hazard at Shikarpur with ideally obtained fragility curve using IDA 59 ix LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1 Site location details and ground response results for MCE and DBE hazard levels at Shikarpur site (Delhi Micro-zonation Report, 2014) 25
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