Mathematical Modelling of GTAW and GMAW

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Mathematical Modelling of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Processes A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirernents for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science University of Toronto @ Copyright by Massoud Goodarzi 1997 191 National Library of Canada Acquisitions and Bibliographie Services 395 Wellington Street Ottawa ON K1AON4 Bibliothéque nationale du Canada se~ices bibliographiques 395. nie Wellington Ot
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  Mathematical Modellingof Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Processes A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirernents forthedegree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science University of Toronto @ Copyright by Massoud Goodarzi 1997  National Library Bibliothéque nationale 191 of Canada du CanadaAcquisitions and Acquisitions et Bibliographie Services se~ices ibliographiques 395 Wellington Street 395.nie Wellington Ottawa ON K1AON4 Ottawa ON KI A ON4 Canada Canada The author has granted a non- L'auteur a accordé une Licence nonexclusive licence allowing theexclusive permettant a la National Library of Canada to Bibliothèque nationale du Canada de reproduce, loan, distribute or sell reproduire, prêter, distribuer ou copies of this thesis in microform, vendre des copies de cette thèse souspaper or electronic formats. la forme de rnicrofiche/nlm, de reproduction sur papier ou sur format électronique.The author retains ownership of the L'auteur conserve la propriété du copyright in this thesis. Neither the droit d'auteur qui protège cette thèse. thesis nor substantiai extracts fkom it Ni la thèse ni des extraits substantiels may be printed or otherwise de celle-ci ne doivent être imprimés reproduced without the author' s ou autrement reproduits sans sonpermission. autorisation.  In the nsme of XWH, the Graciouç, the Merciful. (1) Al paix is due to ALM &ne, ~ord f a11 the worldç. (2) The Graciousr the Merciful. (3) Master ol the Day ol ~udgmcnt. 4) THEE alone do we worship and THEE alone do we implore ior help. (5) Guide us in the stwight pth. (6) The pth of those on whom THOU hast lestowed THY a- vours, hos se Who have not incurred THY içpleasure and those who have not gone sçtray. (7)  Abstract ii Mathematical h,fodelling of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Cas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Processes Doctor of Philosophy, 1997 Massoud Goodarzi Depanment of Metallwgy and Materids Science University of Toronto GTA W Process Models for the GTAW arc and the weld pool were developed. In the arc model, the shape of the electrode tip was addressed and the effect of the elrcnode tip angle in the range of 10 to 150 degrees on the arc properties. especially on the anodecurrent density, the heat tlux and the gas shear stress over the weld pool, was studied. It was found that by increasing the rlecuodr tip ansla. the anode spot at the weldpool surface tended to be moreiocalized. This led to hi~her navimum heat tlux and anode current density. On the other hand, the gas shear stress increased with decreas- ing electrode tip angle. The variation in the anode current density, the heat tlux and the gas shear stress with the elecuode tip angle has signifrcant effect on the weld poolproperties. By developing a model for the weld pool the variation in the weld pooldue to variation in the electrode tip angle was studied. In the weld pool model, by considering the four tlow driving forces into theweld pool. it was round bat, in determining the flow pattern into the weid pool and hence i ts shape, the gas shear stress and surface tension arc dominant forces. GMAW Process A model for GMAW arc is developed. ln this model a cathode spot detïned
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