Models of Cb

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HOWARD-SHETH MODEL This model suggests three levels of decision making: 1. The first level describes the extensive problem solving. At this level the consumer does not have any basic information or knowledge about the brand and he does not have any preferences for any product. In this situation, the consumer will seek information about all the different brands in the market before purchasing. 2. The second level is limited problem solving. This situation exists for consumers who have little know
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  HOWARD-SHETH MODEL This model suggests three levels of decision making:1. The first level describes the extensive problem solving . At this level theconsumer does not have any basic information or knowledge about the brandand he does not have any preferences for any product. In this situation, theconsumer will seek information about all the different brands in the market before purchasing.2. The second level is limited problem solving . This situation exists for consumers who have little knowledge about the market, or partial knowledgeabout what they want to purchase. In order to arrive at a brand preference somecomparative brand information is sought.3. The third level is a habitual response behavior . In this level the consumer knows very well about the different brands and he can differentiate between thedifferent characteristics of each product, and he already decides to purchase a particular product. According to the Howard-Sheth model there are four major sets of variables; namely: a)Inputs. These input variables consist of three distinct types of stimuli (informationsources) in the consumer’s environment. The marketer in the form of product or  brand information furnishes physical brand characteristics (significativestimuli) and verbal or visual product characteristics (symbolic stimuli). Thethird type is provided by the consumer’s social environment (family, referencegroup, and social class). All three types of stimuli provide inputs concerningthe product class or specific brands to the specific consumer. 1  Inputs Perceptual Constructs Learning Constructs OutputsStimuli display Figure 2-3 A Simplified Description of the Theory of Buyer BehaviorSource: Howard, and Sheth,Pp32 (1969) b) Perceptual and Learning Constructs ,The central part of the model deals with the psychological variables involvedwhen the consumer is contemplating a decision. Some of the variables are perceptual in nature, and are concerned with how the consumer receives andunderstands the information from the input stimuli and other parts of the model.For example, stimulus ambiguity happened when the consumer does notunderstand the message from the environment. Perceptual bias occurs if theconsumer distorts the information received so that it fits his or her establishedneeds or experience. Learning constructs category, consumers’ goals,information about brands, criteria for evaluation alternatives, preferences and 2Significativea. Quality b. Pricec. Distinctived. Servicee. AvailabilitySymbolica. Quality b. Pricec. Distinctived. Servicee. AvailabilitySociala. Family b. Referencegroupsc. Social classPurchaseIntentionAttitudeBrandComprehe-AttentionOvertsearchStimulusambiguityAttentionPercept-ual biasConfidenceAttitudeMotivesChoiceCriteriaBrandCompre-hensionIntention   buying intentions are all included. The proposed interaction In between thedifferent variables in the perceptual and learning constructs and other sets givethe model its distinctive advantage. c)Outputs The outputs are the results of the perceptual and learning variables and how theconsumers will response to these variables (attention, brand comprehension,attitudes, and intention). d)Exogenous(External) variables Exogenous variables are not directly part of the decision-making process.However, some relevant exogenous variables include the importance of the purchase, consumer personality traits, religion, and time pressure.The decision-making process, which Howard-Sheth Model tries to explain,takes place at three Inputs stages: Significance, Symbolic and Social stimuli. In both significative and symbolic stimuli, the model emphasizes on materialaspects such as price and quality. These stimuli are not applicable in everysociety. While in social stimuli the model does not mention the basis of decision-making in this stimulus, such as what influence the family decision?This may differ from one society to another.Finally, no direct relation was drawn on the role of religion in influencing theconsumer’s decision-making processes. Religion was considered as externalfactor with no real influence on consumer, which give the model obviousweakness in anticipation the consumer decision. 3  ENGEL-KOLLAT MODEL This model was created to describe theincreasing, fast-growing body of knowledge concerning consumer behavior.This model, like in other models, has gone through many revisions to improveits descriptive ability of the basic relationships between components and sub-components, this model consists also of four stages; First stage: decision-process stages The central focus of the model is on five basic decision-process stages: Problem recognition, search for alternatives,alternate evaluation (during which beliefs may lead to the formation of attitudes, which in turn may result in a purchase intention) purchase, andoutcomes. But it is not necessary for every consumer to go through all thesestages; it depends on whether it is an extended or a routine problem-solving behavior. Engel-Kollat- Model of Consumer 4Stimuli:Marketer-Dominated,other ExposureExternalsearchAttentionComprehensionPerceptionYielding/AcceptanceRetentionDissatisfactionSatisfaction M E M    O R  YProblemRecognitionSearchInternalsearchOutcomesPurchaseAlternativeevaluationIndividualCharacteristics:MotivesValuesLifestylePersonalityBeliefsAttitudeIntentionSocialInfluences:CultureReferencegroupFamilySituationalInfluences InputInformationProcessingDecision ProcessVariables InfluencingPrecision Process
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