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Volume 15, no 2 May / Mai 2016 Hill Strategies Research Inc., ISSN X Music In this issue: A focus on recent music research, including the impacts of live music in Ontario, international music
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Volume 15, no 2 May / Mai 2016 Hill Strategies Research Inc., ISSN X Music In this issue: A focus on recent music research, including the impacts of live music in Ontario, international music development strategies, an Australian report on the economic impact of live music, and an analysis of orchestra subscription strategies in the U.S. provides categories, quick links and easy search access to all Arts Research Monitor articles. The Arts Research Monitor is funded by the Canada Council for the Arts and the Ontario Arts Council. Musique Dans ce numéro : Un regard sur des études récentes sur la musique, y compris les effets des spectacles de musique en Ontario, des stratégies internationales de développement de la musique, un rapport australien sur les retombées économiques des spectacles de musique, et une analyse des stratégies d abonnement des orchestres américains. La version française du bulletin suit l anglais. Pour un accès rapide et un outil de recherche aux différents articles des numéros actuels et antérieurs de Recherches sur les arts, visitez Le financement de Recherches sur les arts provient du Conseil des arts du Canada et du Conseil des arts de l Ontario. 1 Live Music Measures Up: An economic impact analysis of live music in Ontario Music Canada, 2015 Author: Nordicity Based largely on a survey of 372 companies in Ontario s live music sector, this report attempts to identify the impacts of live music on Ontario s economy, employment, and communities. The report also endeavours to serve as a benchmark for the measurement of changes in the live music sector. The 372 responding companies represent 30% of all 1,240 companies operating as artist managers, promoters, agents, music venues, and festivals in Ontario. Artists are not directly accounted for in the study, unless they are also managers (i.e., self-managed performers). The appendix to the report provides details of the methodology used for the study, which included an online survey and interviews. Based on the survey results, the researchers estimate that live music companies in Ontario generated $628 million in revenue from live music activities in 2013, with the largest portion of revenues coming from ticket sales (40%). Of these ticket sales, approximately 32% was generated by Canadian artists. Live music companies made profits of $144 million in 2013, or 23% of total revenues. The survey results provide audience or capacity statistics for music festivals, promoters, and venues. The 558 music festivals in Ontario had 13.7 million unique visitors and sold (or provided for free) a total of 15.7 million tickets. The province s 775 promoters sold 5.4 million tickets to nearly 82,000 shows in (Some of the tickets sold by promoters were for festival events, so the total tickets for each type of provider should not be added together.) In the 616 venues offering live music performances, there is a collective capacity of 3.6 million people. Nearly three-quarters of audience members at music events (72%) are local, with 17% coming from other parts of Ontario, 6% from other provinces or territories, and 5% from international locations. The expenditures of live music companies were $484 million in 2013, and their economic impact was $583 million. (The methodology used in the report includes direct impacts of companies spending as well as indirect impacts associated with the re-spending by suppliers of the expenditures of live music companies and induced impacts associated with the respending of the earnings of workers in live music companies and suppliers.) A separate estimate of the economic impact of live music related tourism is provided in the report: $609 million in The report also identifies $432 million in taxes associated with live music in 2013 (via both companies and tourism activities). Regarding the future growth of live music companies, key opportunities include access to tax credits and other government funding as well as the availability of local Canadian talent. Arts Research Monitor / Recherches sur les arts 2 Key challenges to future growth include the legal and regulatory environment in Canada as well as the value of the Canadian dollar and high local operating costs. The Mastering of a Music City Key elements, effective strategies & why it's worth pursuing IFPI and Music Canada, This report, based on a literature review, over 40 expert interviews, and two international focus group sessions, aims to provide a roadmap for the development of music, especially the commercial music sector, in municipalities of any size, anywhere in the world. The report outlines five essential elements of music cities : The presence of artists and musicians; A thriving music scene; Access to spaces and places; A receptive and engaged audience; and Record labels and other music-related businesses. Regarding the benefits of being a music city, the report outlines job creation, economic growth, tourism development, city brand building and artistic growth. Recognition as a music city can also contribute to attracting businesses in other industries as well as talented professionals. Seven key strategies are recommended to enhance a city s music sector: 1. Music-friendly and musician-friendly policies, including business licensing, liquor licensing, transportation planning and parking, as well as land-use planning. Also important are a supporting environment for artists including training, education, mentorship, hubs or incubators, and affordable housing. 2. A single point of contact for the music community, in the form of a music office or officer. 3. A music advisory board, which can provide an invaluable link between the music community and City Hall. 4. Engaging the broader music community to get their buy-in and support. 5. Access to spaces and places, because music needs many homes. From education to rehearsal to recording to performance, Music Cities require a variety of quality spaces and places to succeed. 6. Audience development, via proximity to other music markets, transportation links, and promotion of live music events. A key challenge in this area is building an audience for local performers, not just international stars. Arts Research Monitor / Recherches sur les arts 3 7. Music tourism, building on assets such as a city s year-round live music scene, music festivals and historical music landmarks. A comprehensive music tourism strategy would be the most in-depth development of this idea. The report identifies key research elements to underpin these strategies, including: Economic impact studies; Music tourism impact studies; Business inventories; Needs assessments; and Resource guides. The Economic & Cultural Value of Live Music in Australia in 2014 University of Tasmania, City of Sydney, City of Melbourne, The Government of South Australia, and the (Australia) Live Music Office, Employing a cost-benefit analysis (based on a national consumer survey, venue owner and operator interviews, and secondary data on the sector), this report attempts to provide a valuation of the economic, social and cultural contribution of live music in Australia. The headline finding of the report is that, for every dollar spent on live music in Australia, $3.00 worth of benefits are returned to the wider Australian community. The costs of live music were estimated at $5.0 billion in 2014, while live music s benefits were conservatively valued at $15.7 billion, including: Individual benefits of $10.4 billion, including direct expenditures on live music (i.e., the $5.0 billion that Australians spent on tickets, food, and beverages at live music events) as well as an estimate of live music consumers willingness to pay (a measure of their satisfaction). For individuals, important social benefits of live music include greater social capital and improved health and wellbeing. Civic benefits valued at $3.2 billion, including an estimated 65,000 full and part-time jobs enabled by spending on live music and taxation revenue to all tiers of government. Given that the survey results showed that about one-half of respondents travel to attend music events, live music could also confer competitive advantages to jurisdictions with strong music scenes. Commercial benefits of $2.1 billion, including profits generated by live music producers and a net positive impact on productivity at work reported by live music attendees. The report concludes by recommending further research into live music volunteerism, potential benefits that non-users of live music might receive from live music activity in their community, potential impacts of live music on worker productivity, and a national satellite Arts Research Monitor / Recherches sur les arts 4 account for live music, that comprehensively details how live music making directly impacts on the Australian economy. Reimagining the Orchestra Subscription Model League of American Orchestras, 2015 Author: Oliver Wyman Based on a survey of over 4,000 orchestra attendees and the largest ever orchestra sales dataset from 44 American orchestras and one Canadian one (the National Arts Centre Orchestra), this report examines why people subscribe, why they lapse, and what they might want that is not currently being offered in current orchestra subscription packages. The report indicates that orchestra ticket sales have decreased at a compound annual rate of 2.8% over the past decade. In response to declining sales, many orchestras have increased ticket prices, a trend that the report suggests cannot continue without the risk of losing many attendees. Over the past 10 years, total subscription revenues for the average orchestra have fallen by 15%, with a 24% decrease in the number of subscription packages sold and a 13% decrease in the number of subscription tickets sold. There have been substantial differences in subscription sales by size of orchestra: A compound annual decrease of 2.4% for orchestras with budgets over $16 million. A compound annual decrease of 1.7% for those with budgets between $7 and $16 million. A compound annual increase of 2.2% for those with budgets under $7 million. The report examines a number of potential reasons for the decrease in subscriptions, with an assessment based on the research findings (which are detailed in the report): 1. People are just losing interest in classical music. Somewhat true. 2. Other arts and entertainment options are taking audience share from orchestras. False. 3. Orchestra-goers are unhappy with their orchestra experience. Overwhelmingly false. 4. Subscribers are discontent with programming or the quality of performances. Somewhat true. 5. Subscribers are dissatisfied with the subscription product itself. Largely true. The survey found that the top reasons for subscribers lapsing include price, scheduling issues, a desire to chose one s own programming, and dissatisfaction with the programming being offered. To counter this and revitalize the subscription model, the report recommends that orchestras build closer, stickier relationships with customers, as has been done in other sectors of the economy, by: Arts Research Monitor / Recherches sur les arts 5 Expanding their use of social media, apps, and bring a friend programs, all of which could help attract millennials. Decoupling curation from package size, i.e., offering small curated subscription packages as well as large customized options. Improving the value proposition by allowing subscribers to pay in monthly installments (including automatic renewals) and offering a buy now, choose later option. Considering offering a membership completely divorced from attendance frequency that would confer belonging, exclusivity, and certain benefits such as access to a VIP lounge in the orchestra hall and preferred access to single tickets. The report concludes that orchestras should think carefully about [their] unique circumstances and customize new offers for [their] local market. Arts Research Monitor / Recherches sur les arts 6 Musique Les spectacles de musique rapportent : analyse des retombées économiques des spectacles de musique en Ontario (Live Music Measures Up: An economic impact analysis of live music in Ontario) Music Canada, 2015 Auteur : Nordicity Basé en grande partie sur un sondage auprès de 372 entreprises dans le secteur de la musique sur scène en Ontario, ce rapport tente d énumérer les effets des spectacles de musique sur l économie, l emploi et les collectivités de l Ontario. Il se propose également de servir de référence pour mesurer l évolution du secteur de la musique sur scène. Les 372 entreprises qui ont répondu représentent 30 % des entreprises qui œuvrent en tant que gérants d artistes, promoteurs, agents, salles de spectacle et festivals en Ontario. L étude ne s intéresse pas aux artistes, sauf s ils sont également des gérants (p. ex. artistes autogérés). L annexe du rapport fournit des détails sur la méthodologie de l étude, notamment un sondage en ligne et des entrevues. En se fondant sur les résultats du sondage, les chercheurs estiment que «les entreprises de spectacles de musique en Ontario ont généré 628 millions de dollars en revenus pour les activités de musique sur scène en 2013», la plus grande portion des revenus provenant de la vente de billets (40 %). Environ 32 % de ces ventes de billets étaient pour des spectacles d artistes canadiens. Ces entreprises ont réalisé des bénéfices de 144 millions de dollars en 2013, ou 23 % du total des revenus. Les résultats du sondage comportent des statistiques sur le public ou la capacité des festivals de musique, des promoteurs et des salles de spectacle. Les 558 festivals de musique en Ontario ont attiré 13,7 millions de spectateurs uniques et vendu (ou distribué gratuitement) un total de 15,7 millions de billets. Les 775 promoteurs de la province ont vendu 5,4 millions de billets à environ spectacles en (Comme certains billets vendus par les promoteurs étaient pour des festivals, il ne faut pas additionner le nombre de billets de chaque type de promoteur.) La capacité totale des «616 salles de spectacles de musique» est de 3,6 millions de personnes. Près de trois quarts des spectateurs (72 %) habitent dans la localité où a lieu le spectacle, 17 % viennent d ailleurs en Ontario, 6 % des autres provinces ou territoires, et 5 % de l étranger. Les dépenses des entreprises de musique sur scène étaient de 484 millions $ en Les Arts Research Monitor / Recherches sur les arts 7 retombées économiques se chiffrent à 583 millions $. (La méthodologie utilisée dans le rapport comprend les effets directs des dépenses des entreprises ainsi que les effets indirects associés aux dépenses secondaires de leurs fournisseurs et les effets induits associés aux salaires des travailleurs de ces entreprises et de leurs fournisseurs.) Le rapport propose également une estimation distincte des retombées économiques du tourisme musical en 2013, soit 609 millions de dollars, et avance que le secteur a généré 432 millions de dollars en taxes en 2013 (en comptant les activités des entreprises et du tourisme). En ce qui a trait à la croissance future des entreprises de musique sur scène, les principales possibilités comprennent l accès aux crédits d impôt et à d autres fonds publics ainsi que «la disponibilité de talents canadiens locaux». Les principaux obtacles à la croissance future comprennent «l environnement juridique et réglementaire au Canada» ainsi que la valeur du dollar canadien et les frais d exploitation élevés à l échelle locale. La composition d une ville musicale Principaux éléments, stratégies efficaces et pourquoi cela vaut la peine (The Mastering of a Music City) IFPI et Music Canada, Basé sur une revue de la littérature, plus de 40 entrevues avec des experts et deux groupes de discussion internationaux, ce rapport propose une «feuille de route» pour le développement de la musique, surtout pour le secteur de la musique commerciale, dans les municipalités de n importe quelle taille, n importe où au monde. Le rapport esquisse cinq éléments essentiels des «villes musicales» : la présence «d artistes et de musiciens; des milieux musicaux dynamiques; l accès à des espaces et des lieux; un public réceptif et engagé; et des compagnies de disque et d autres entreprises du secteur de la musique». En ce qui concerne les avantages d être une ville musicale, le rapport énumère «la création d emplois, la croissance économique, le développement du tourisme, la création de la marque de la ville et la croissance artistique». La reconnaissance en tant que ville musicale peut aussi servir à attirer des entreprises dans d autres secteurs ainsi que des professionnels talentueux. Le rapport recommande sept principales stratégies pour augmenter le secteur musical d une ville : 1. «Des politiques favorables à la musique et aux musiciens», y compris «les permis pour les entreprises, les permis d alcool, la planification du transport et le stationnement Arts Research Monitor / Recherches sur les arts 8 ainsi que la planification de l aménagement du territoire». Un «environnement qui soutient les artistes» est également important, y compris la formation, l éducation, les mentorats, des carrefours et des pépinières, et des logements à prix abordables. 2. «Un point de contact unique pour les milieux de la musique, sous forme d un bureau ou d un agent de la musique». 3. «Un comité consultatif sur la musique», qui peut «servir de lien inestimable entre les milieux de la musique et l administration municipale». 4. «La mobilisation de la vaste communauté musicale pour obtenir leur adhésion et leur soutien». 5. «L accès aux espaces et aux lieux», parce que la musique «a besoin de nombreux lieux. De la formation aux répétitions, des enregistrements aux spectacles, les villes musicales exigent une variété d espaces et de lieux de qualité pour réussir.» 6. «Le développement des publics», grâce à la «proximité aux autres marchés de la musique, des liens aux transports et la promotion de spectacles de musique». Un des principaux défis dans ce domaine est «la création d un public pour les interprètes locaux» et non seulement pour les vedettes internationales. 7. Le «tourisme musical», la création d actifs comme «des spectacles et des festivals de musique ainsi que des lieux notables dans l histoire de la musique». Une stratégie globale de tourisme musical constitue l aboutissement de cette idée. Le rapport précise les principaux éléments de recherche qui sous-tendent ces stratégies, y compris : «études des retombées économiques; études des retombées du tourisme musical; stocks des entreprises; évaluations des besoins; et guides de ressources.» La valeur économique et culturelle des spectacles de musique en Australie en 2014 (The Economic & Cultural Value of Live Music in Australia in 2014) Université de Tasmanie, ville de Sydney, ville de Melbourne, gouvernement de South Australia et Live Music Office de l Australie, En utilisant une analyse coût/bénéfice (basé sur un sondage national des consommateurs ainsi que sur des entrevues avec des propriétaires et des exploitants de salles de spectacles), ce rapport tente d établir «la valeur de l apport économique, social et culturel» des spectacles de musique en Australie. La principale conclusion de ce rapport est que, «pour chaque dollar dépensé pour des Arts Research Monitor / Recherches sur les arts 9 spectacles de musique en Australie, il y a trois dollars de retombées dans l ensemble de la communauté australienne». Les coûts des spectacles de musique sont estimés à 5,0 milliards de dollars en 2014, tandis que les bénéfices des spectacles de musique étaient évalués «de façon conservatrice» à 15,7 milliards de dollars, y compris : Les bénéfices individuels de 10,4 milliards de dollars, ce qui comprend les dépenses directes pour les spectacles de musique (p. ex. les 5,0 milliards de dollars que les Australiens dépensent pour des billets,
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