Negotiations Primer 2011

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Table of ConTenTs 5 6 10 14 16 16 20 24 26 30 34 36 37 41 44 45 I. Introduction Ⅱ. History III. Gaza: Occupation by Siege IV. Our Vision of Peace V. Permanent Status Issues a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Jerusalem Settlements Borders and Related Issues Water Refugees Political Prisoners, Missing Persons and the Remains of Fallen Persons Issues Between the State of Palestine and the State of Israel Economic and Trade Relations, Monetary Affairs Resolving All Claims VI. Conclusion VII. Annex: Fr
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  Table of ConTenTs I. Introduction   Ⅱ. History III. Gaza: Occupation by Siege IV. Our Vision o Peace V. Permanent Status Issues  a.   Jerusalem  b.   Settlements  c.   Borders and Related Issues  d.   Water  e.   Reugees  f.   Political Prisoners, Missing Persons and the Remains o Fallen Persons  g.   Issues Between the State o Palestine and the State o Israel  h. Economic and Trade Relations, Monetary Aairs  i.   Resolving All Claims VI. Conclusion VII. Annex: Frequently Asked Questions on Camp David 561014161620242630343637414445  5negoTiaTions Primer Ⅰ. inTroduCTion  For over 60 years, we have suered through war and occupation. Seventy percento our people are reugees, many still living in camps waiting or the day when theywill return to their homes. In the West Bank, we live in constant humiliation, as wecross through checkpoints and endure the continued colonization o our land. And,in Gaza, our people suer rom a suocating siege that restricts all movement o goods and people.Yet, we continue to work towards the day when our amilies will reunite, whenour cities will prosper and our children will be ree to ulll their ull potential. Wecling to our long-standing aspiration or the reedom to live in peace, prosperityand security in a sovereign and independent Palestinian state. We have chosennegotiations as our path towards a just, comprehensive and durable peace betweenPalestinians and Israelis. The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), ounded in1964, is the ocial and sole representative o our people and has participated innumerous negotiations processes on our behal, a journey which has at times beencomplicated and painul.  6negoTiaTions affairs deParTmenT7 negoTiaTions Primer  Two decades later, inJune 1967, Israeli orcesmilitarily occupied theremainder o Palestineand displaced over200,000 o our residentso the West Bank and GazaStrip. Soon thereater,Israel began colonizingthe occupied Palestinianterritory (oPt), in grossviolation o internationallaw. Systematic Israeliviolations o our humanrights and internationallaw governing militaryoccupation were, andcontinue to be, dening characteristics o Israel’soccupation, employed to maintain control over ourpopulation, territory and resources. For more than ourdecades, Israel has continuously conscated our landto build illegal settlements and extensive supportinginrastructure, in an eort to permanently control largeparts o the West Bank. In addition, Israel has illegallyexploited our natural resources, especially water, andhas deliberately hindered our economic development.Despite these brazen Israeli policies and practices,we have maintained an unshakable nationalidentity and connection to our homeland. Againstour daily hardships, we work to realize our right tosel-determination with an indeatigable passion,while simultaneously exerting every conceivable eortto achieve a sustainable peace with Israel.In 1988, we made a historic compromise by relinqui-shing our claim to 78 percent o the territoryencompassed by historic Palestine. We acceptedto establish an independent Palestinian state, withEast Jerusalem as its capital, on the remaining 22percent o our territory occupied by Israel in 1967.We simultaneously recognized UN Security Councilresolutions 242 and 338, which rearmed the illegalityo Israel’s acquisition o our territory by orce. In1993, we took one urther step to engage in peacenegotiations with Israel to realize our national rightsto sel-determination and statehood. Through suchnegotiations, we accepted to make urther historiccompromises in various temporary agreements, knownas the “Oslo Accords,”(named ater the citywhere PLO and Israelinegotiators conductedtheir negotiations). Thetemporary agreementswere supposed to endve years rom signing,in 1999, and lead to apermanent agreement. The permanent agree-ment promised toend Israel’s militaryoccupation; to provideus with the opportunityto rebuild our country,including our economy,without Israeli intererence; and to achieve a justresolution to our reugee issue based on UN GeneralAssembly Resolution 194. This has not happened.Since the 1993 Oslo Accords and during the multiplerounds o negotiations that have ollowed (1993 to2001 and 2007 to 2008), signicant progress was madetoward reaching a consensus on the parameters o apermanent agreement. In parallel, we engaged instate-building, including establishing ministries andpublic institutions; providing social services; buildingour inrastructure; and assuming responsibilities overa wide range o civil and security responsibilities in ourcities and towns in the oPt.However, no permanent status agreement has yet beenreached, despite nearly two decades o our persistenteorts to achieve it. Under the leadership o PresidentMahmoud Abbas, we have solidied our call or thetwo-state solution, yet Israel has reused to engagein a credible negotiations process. Instead, Israel, asthe occupying power, has taken unilateral actions tomaintain and solidiy its permanent presence in the oPt.A case in point o Israeli continued control over the oPtis the 2005 “disengagement”plan rom the Gaza Strip.Contrary to Israel’s claims that its “disengagement”ended its occupation o the Gaza Strip, Israel has inact perpetuated its occupation and stranglehold byits continued control over the Gaza Strip’s borders,including land, air and sea space. Further, Israel hasimposed a long-standing siege on the movement o people and goods in or out o the Gaza Strip. Such “ Systematic Israeli violations o our human rights and internationallaw governing military occupationwere, and continue to be, deningcharacteristics o Israel’s occupation,employed to maintain controlover our population, territory andresources. ” We have struggled or independence since the rsthal o the twentieth century, when Great Britain,then the mandatory power in Palestine, allowed orincreased Jewish immigration to Palestine. The Jewishimmigrants advocated or turning Palestine into aJewish state, despite the act that the majority o Palestine’s inhabitants were non-Jews. By the time theBritish Mandate ended with the departure o Britain’stroops in 1948, the Jewish population had grownrom one percent at the beginning o that century, toapproximately 30 percent, thus dramatically alteringPalestine’s demographic balance. With increasedcalls by Jewish immigrants to colonize Palestine atthe expense o our rights and aspirations, relationsbetween our native Palestinians and the burgeoningJewish immigrant population soured.Recognizing that the potential or violence and widerstrie had grown very high in Palestine, Great Britainreerred the situation to the United Nations (UN) onApril 1947 or their recommendations concerningthe uture government o Palestine. As a result, theUN adopted, in November 1947, the United NationsPartition Plan or Palestine (United Nations GeneralAssembly (UNGA) Resolution 181) which called or thedivision o Palestine into two states, with the majorityo Palestine’s land allocated to the Jewish minority, atthe expense o the Palestinian majority.As confict ensued, Palestine disappeared rom themap as Jewish militias destroyed over 400 Palestinianvillages and expelled more than 726,000 Palestiniansrom their homeland. The new, unilaterally declared,state o Israel denied us the right to return to our nativeland and instead seized our property. Thus, Israelcondemned two-thirds o our people to lie in exile andoccupied 78 percent o Palestine, a percentage that arexceeded the 55 percent that had been recommendedor allocation to a Jewish state under the 1947 UNPartition Plan.been complicated and painul. Ⅱ. HisTory  JeninTubasTulkarmQalqilyaNablus Salfit RamallahJerusalem Bethlehem HebronJerichoGazaKhanYunisRafahJaffaTel-AvivLidRamlahAkka Nazareth HaifaSafadBisan N a q a b - N e g e v G a l i l e e W e s t B a n k G a z a S t r i p DEADSEA Lake Tiberias MEDITERRANEANSEA JORDANSINAIEGYPTLEBANON 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      S      Y      R      I      A TiberiasBirSaba State of IsraelPalestinian city, town or villagedepopulated and / or destroyedby Israel, 1947-19491967 Boundary (“Green Line”) ©NAD-NSU 10Km Palestinian Localities Depopulated or Destroyed, 1947-1949
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