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1 Abstract A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automatically or with guidance, typically by remote control. In practice a robot is usually an electromechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming. Robots can be autonomous, semi-autonomous or remotely controlled. In my project I will talk about modern robots, there types, uses and their future development. 2 Introduction Robots range from humanoids such as ASIMO and TOPIO to Na
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  1  Abstract A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automaticallyor with guidance, typically by remote control. In practice a robot is usually anelectro-mechanical machinethat is guided by computer and electronic programming. Robots canbeautonomous,semi-autonomous or remotely controlled. In my project I will talk aboutmodern robots, there types, uses and their future development.  2 Introduction Robots range from humanoids such asASIMOandTOPIOtoNano robots,Swarm robots,Industrial robots,mobileandservicing robots.By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense that it hasintentoragencyof its own.When societies first began developing,nearly all production and effort was theresult of human labour , as well as with theaid of semi- and fully domesticatedanimals. As mechanical means of performing functions were discovered, andmechanics and complex mechanisms weredeveloped, the need for human labour wasreduced. Machinery was initially used forrepetitive functions, such as lifting water and grinding grain. With technologicaladvances more complex machines were slowly developed, such as those inventedbyHero of Alexandria(in Egypt) in the 1st century AD, and the first half of the secondmillennium AD, such as the Automata of Al-Jazariin the 12th century AD (inmedieval Iraq). They were not widely adopted as human labour, particularly slave labour, was stillinexpensive compared to the capital-intensive machines. Men such asLeonardo DaVinciin 1495 through toJacques de Vaucansonin 1739, as well as rediscovering theGreek engineeringmethods, have made plans for and built automata and robotsleading to books of designs such as the Japanese Karakuri zui (  Illustrated Machinery ) in1796. As mechanical techniques developed through the Industrial age we find morepractical applications such asNikola Teslain 1898, who designed a radio-controlled boat,and John Hammond Jr. and Benjamin Miessner who in 1912 created the Electric Dog as aprecursor to their self directing torpedo of 1915. We also find amoreandroiddevelopment as designers tried to mimic more human-like featuresincluding designs such as those of biologist Makoto Nishimura in 1929 and hiscreationGakutensoku,which cried and changed its facial expressions, and the morecrudeElektrofromWestinghouse Electric Corporationin 1938. Electronics then became the driving force of development instead of mechanics, with theadvent of the first electronicautonomous robotscreated byWilliam Grey WalterinBristol,England,in 1948. The first digital and programmable robot was invented byGeorge Devolin 1954 and was ultimately called theUnimate.Devol sold the first Unimate toGeneral Motorsin 1960 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metalfromdie castingmachines in a plant inTrenton, New Jersey.Since then we have seen robots finally reach a more true assimilation of all technologies to produce robots suchasASIMOwhich can walk and move like a human. Robots have replaced slaves theassistance of performing those repetitive and dangerous tasks which humans prefer not todo, or are unable to do due to size limitations, or even those such as in outer space or atthe bottom of the sea where humans could not survive the extreme environments.Man has developed an awareness of the problems associated with autonomous robots andhow they may act in society. Fear of robot behaviour, such asShelley'sFrankensteinand theEATR,drive current practice in establishing what autonomy a robot should and  3 should not be capable of. Thinking has developed through discussion of robot control andartificial intelligence (AI) and how its application should benefit society, such as thosebased around Asimov's three laws. Practicality still drives development forwards androbots are used in an increasingly wide variety of tasks such as vacuuming floors,mowing lawns, cleaning drains, investigating other planets, building cars, inentertainment and in warfare. Modern developments The Japanese craftsmanHisashige Tanaka(1799  –  1881), known as Japan's Edison or Karakuri Giemon , created an array of extremely complex mechanical toys,some of which served tea, fired arrowsdrawn from a quiver, and even painted aJapanese kanji character. In 1898NikolaTeslapublicly demonstrated a radio-controlledtorpedo.Based on patents for teleautomation , Tesla hoped to developit into aweapon systemfor theUS Navy.  In 1926,Westinghouse ElectricCorporationcreated Televox, the firstrobot put to useful work. They followed Televox with a number of other simple robots,including one called Rastus, made in the crude image of a black man. In the 1930s, theycreated a humanoid robot known as Elektro for exhibition purposes, including the 1939and 1940World's Fairs.In 1928, Japan's first robot,Gakutensoku,was designed and constructed by biologist Makoto Nishimura.The first electronic autonomous robots with complex behaviour were created byWilliamGrey Walterof the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol, England in 1948 and 1949.They were named  Elmer  and  Elsie . These robots could sense light and contact withexternal objects, and use these stimuli to navigate.The first truly modern robot, digitally operated and programmable, was invented byGeorge Devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate. Devol sold the firstUnimate toGeneral Motorsin 1960, and it was installed in 1961 in a plant inTrenton, New Jerseyto lift hot pieces of metal from adie castingmachine and stack them. Devol’s patent for the first digitally operated programmable robotic arm represents the foundationof the modern robotics industry.Commercial and industrial robots are now in widespread use performing jobs morecheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans. They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widelyused in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration,surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrialgoods.  4 Conclusion The word robot  can refer to both physical robots andvirtualsoftware agents,but the latter are usually referred to asbots.There is no consensus on which machines qualify asrobots but there is general agreement among experts, and the public, that robots tend todo some or all of the following: move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense andmanipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior  —  especially behaviorwhich mimics humans or other animals.There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone and many people have theirown. For exampleJoseph Engelberger,a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: Ican't define a robot, but I know one when I see one. According to theEncyclopaediaBritannicaa robot is any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort,though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in ahumanlike manner .Merriam-Websterdescribes a robot as a machine that looks like ahuman being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a humanbeing , or a device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks , or a mechanism guided by automatic controls . Defining characteristics While there is no single correct definition of robot, a typical robot will have several, orpossibly all, of the following characteristics.It is an electric machine which has some ability to interact with physical objects and to begiven electronic programming to do a specific task or to do a whole range of tasks oractions. It may also have some ability to perceive and absorb data on physical objects, oron its local physical environment, or to process data, or to respond to various stimuli.This is in contrast to a simple mechanical device such as agearor ahydraulic pressor any other item which has no processing ability and which does tasks throughpurelymechanicalprocesses and motion. Mental agency For robotic engineers, the physical appearance of a machine is less important than theway its actions arecontrolled.The more the control system seems to haveagencyof its own, the more likely the machine is to be called a robot. An important feature of agencyis the ability to make choices. Higher-level cognitive functions, though, are notnecessary, as shown byant robots.     Aclockwork car is never considered a robot.    A mechanical device able to perform some preset motions but with no ability to adapt(anautomaton)is rarely considered a robot.    A remotely operated vehicle is sometimes considered a robot (ortelerobot).    A car with an onboard computer, likeBigtrak,which could drive in a programmablesequence, might be called a robot.    Aself-controlled carwhich could sense its environment and make driving decisionsbased on this information, such as the 1990sdriverless carsof Ernst Dickmannsor the entries in theDARPA Grand Challenge,would quite likely be called a robot.    Asentientcar, like the fictionalKITT,which can make decisions, navigate freely and converse fluently with a human, is usually considered a robot.
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