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Brand Personality Creation through Advertising Hans Ouwersloot Anamaria Tudorica MAXX WORKING PAPER SERIES Maastricht Academic Center for research in Services MAXX Working Paper 2001-01, February 2 nd, 2001 Brand Personality Creation through Advertising Abstract Brand Personality is one of the core dimensions of brand equity. Brand personality refers to the emotional side of a brand image. It is created by all experiences of consumers with a brand, but advertising plays a dominant role in p
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  Brand Personality Creation throughAdvertising Hans OuwerslootAnamaria Tudorica MAXX WORKING PAPER SERIES MAXX Working Paper 2001-01, February 2 nd , 2001 Maastricht Academic Center for research in Services  1 Brand Personality Creation through Advertising AbstractBrand Personality is one of the core dimensions of brand equity. Brand personality refers tothe emotional side of a brand image. It is created by all experiences of consumers with abrand, but advertising plays a dominant role in personality creation.In this paper we explore the mechanism that builds brand personality with the help of advertising. We integrate advertising models with the theory of brand personality. Ourintegrated framework leads to a number of propositions that set an agenda in this field.In building our framework we incorporate theories from the fields of marketing (brand equityand advertising), communication science and psychology (personality).  2 Introduction Brand personality is an attractive and appealing concept in the marketing of today. It is one of the core dimensions of the brand identity (D. Aaker, 1996) and perhaps the one closest to theconsumers. The personality idea responds to the tendency in contemporary society to valuepersonal relationships. It also refers to the idea that relationships are important in social life.In terms of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, it tries to lift products to higher levels of needsatisfaction, like belongingness and love and esteem.Brand personalities are created in different ways and with different tools. However, thecreation always involves active communications on the side of the firm: the personality has tobe disseminated to be alive. Advertising is heavily used in this process of personality creation.This follows logically from the fact that personalities are particularly useful for the creation of brand associations. Brand associations influence the’ evaluation of alternatives’ stage in basicconsumer buying behavior models. In this stage, and for these goals, advertising is consideredto be the most effective communication tools (Brassington & Pettitt, 2000).Perhaps the most visible and best known way of personality creations is by means of celebrityendorsers. Public heroes, sports people (Michael Jordan), pop stars (Tina Turner) and moviestars (Bruce Willis) is particular, are hired to lend their personality to a brand but this practicegoes back to at least for a century (Erdogan & Baker, 2000) 1 . Redenbach (2000) noted that thepractice is still growing in popularity today.Yet, basically all advertising influences the brand personality, not only when an endorser isused. In this paper we focus on this process of personality creation in a broad sense. Inparticular we discuss how advertising is used to create brand personality. To the end weintegrate a general model of advertising with a model of brand personality creation. Based onthat model we derive a number of propositions that are open to research. But we first present athorough analysis of the role of brand personality in the creation of brand equity, therebylinking our topic to one of general and increasing importance. 1 A web search provided examples from the 1950’s, including an actor called Reagan, promoting antiseptic hairtonic ( Erdogan and Baker spot QueenVictoria as one of the first celebrity endorsers.  3 Brand Equity The concept of brand equity is one of the most popular and important marketing concepts of today. Despite its popularity it is not unequivocally defined. First there is the distinctionbetween the financial-economic perspective and the customer-based view. The financial-economic view sees brand equity as the (financial) worth of brands, the brand as a liability onthe balance sheet. The customer-based view sees brand equity as the differential effect of abrand on consumer behavior (Keller, 1998). In this paper we will adopt and elaborate on thecustomer-based view.It seems pretty obvious that the customer-based and financial-economic views on brandequity are closely related. Figure 1 depicts this relationship. Customer-based brand equity,defined as a differential effect, potentially leads to some form of consumer response. Thisconsumer response may be either behavioral, or attitudinal, but this response is a necessaryprerequisite to attach (monetary) value to a brand. The other way round, we also argue thatcustomer-based brand equity can only be meaningfully defined when the differential effectleads to some form of consumer response.There is also a link from the consumer response to the customer-based brand equity and fromthe FEBE to the CBBE. The first link merely reflects the idea that the consumer response maylead to an enhanced differential effect. The second link suggests that the very presence of FEBE leads to a differential effect. Both links will become clear when we discuss the conceptof differential effect in some more detail. Figure 1: Customer-based and financial brand equity Keller (1998) discussed many definitions and views on CBBE and found that there is noagreement on the concept, except for the notion that all definitions one way or the other referto a form of differential effect. This differential effect can be described as the differenceCBBE:DifferentialeffectConsumerresponseFEBELiability
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