A 234 (Standard Spec for Piping Fitting of Wrought Carbon Steel & Alloy Steel for Moderate & High.pdf

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Used in USDOE-NE Standards Designation: A 234/A 234M – 05a Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperatu
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  Designation: A 234/A 234M – 05a  Used in USDOE-NE Standards Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel forModerate and High Temperature Service 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designationA 234/A 234M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon ( e ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. 1. Scope* 1.1 This specification 2 covers wrought carbon steel andalloy steel fittings of seamless and welded construction coveredby the latest revision of ASME B16.9, B16.11, MSS SP-79, and MSS SP-95. These fittings are for use in pressure piping and in pressure vessel fabrication for service at moderate andelevated temperatures. Fittings differing from these ASME andMSS standards shall be furnished in accordance with Supple-mentary Requirement S58 of Specification A 960/A 960M.1.2 Optional supplementary requirements are provided forfittings where a greater degree of examination is desired. Whendesired, one or more of these supplementary requirements maybe specified in the order.1.3 This specification does not cover cast welding fittings orfittings machined from castings. Cast steel welding fittings aregoverned by Specifications A 216/A 216M and A 217/  A 217M.1.4 This specification is expressed in both inch-pound unitsand in SI units. However, unless the order specifies theapplicable “M” specification designation (SI units), the mate-rial shall be furnished to inch-pound units.1.5 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, theSI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in eachsystem are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system mustbe used independently of the other. Combining values from thetwo systems may result in nonconformance with the specifi-cation. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 In addition to those reference documents listed inSpecification A 960/A 960M, the following list of standardsapply to this specification.2.2  ASTM Standards:  3 A 216/A 216M Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon,Suitable for Fusion Welding, for High-Temperature Ser-viceA 217/A 217M Specification for Steel Castings, Martensi-tic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-Containing PartsSuitable for High-Temperature ServiceA 960/A 960M Specification for Common Requirementsfor Wrought Steel Piping Fittings2.3  ASME Standards: 4 B16.9 Steel Butt-Welding FittingsB16.11 Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded2.4  ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code: 4 Section V Nondestructive ExaminationSection VIII, Division 1, Pressure VesselsSection IX Welding Qualifications2.5  MSS Standards: 5 MSS SP-25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings,Flanges, and UnionsMSS SP-79 Socket Welding Reducer InsertsMSS SP-95 Swage(d) Nipples and Bull Plugs2.6  ASNT Standard: SNT-TC-1A(1984) Recommended Practice for Nondestruc-tive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification 6 3. Ordering Information 3.1 See Specification A 960/A 960M. 4. General Requirements 4.1 Product furnished to this specification shall conform tothe requirements of Specification A 960/A 960M, including any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the 1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and BoltingMaterials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications.Current edition approved June 1, 2005. Published June 2005. Originallyapproved in 1940. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as A 234/A 234M – 05. 2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Specifi-cation SA-234 in Section II of that Code. 3 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For  Annual Book of ASTM Standards  volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website. 4 Available from ASME International, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY10016–5990. 5 Available from Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and FittingsIndustry, 1815 N. Fort Myer Drive, Arlington, VA 22209. 6 Available from American Society for Nondestructive Testing, 4153 ArlingatePlaza, Columbus, OH 43228-0518. 1 *A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard. Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account); Wed Jun 22 10:45:46 EDT 2005   Copyright ASTM International Reproduced by IHS under license with ASTM Licensee=Unocal/5958404002, User=Herawati, Susi Not for Resale, 10/12/2005 18:18:02 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``,`,,,,`,```,,,`,````,,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---  purchase order. Failure to comply with the requirements of Specification A 960/A 960M constitutes non-conformancewith this specification. In case of a conflict between therequirements of this specification and Specification A 960/ A 960M, this specification shall prevail. 5. Materials 5.1 The material for fittings shall consist of killed steel,forgings, bars, plates, seamless or fusion-welded tubular prod-ucts with filler metal added and shall conform to the chemicalrequirements of  Table 1. Unless otherwise specified for carbon steel plates, the steel may be made to either coarse grain or finegrain practice. Grade WP9 shall be made to fine grain practice.5.2 A starting material specification that specifically re-quires the addition of any element beyond those listed for thematerials in Table 1 for the applicable grade of material is notpermitted. This does not preclude the use of deoxidizers or the judicious use of elements for grain size control. 6. Manufacture 6.1 Forging or shaping operations may be performed byhammering, pressing, piercing, extruding, upsetting, rolling,bending, fusion welding, machining, or by a combination of two or more of these operations. The forming procedure shallbe so applied that it will not produce injurious imperfections inthe fittings. N OTE  1—Fittings NPS-4 and under may be machined from hot-forgedor rolled, cold-sized, and straightened bar stock having the chemicalcomposition of the Grade in Table 1 and the mechanical properties of theGrade in Table 2. Heat treatment shall be in accordance with Section 7.All caps machined from bar stock shall be examined by liquid penetrant ormagnetic particle in accordance with S52 or S53 in SpecificationA 960/A 960M. 6.2 All welds including welds in tubular products fromwhich fittings are made shall be ( 1 ) made by welders, weldingoperators, and welding procedures qualified under the provi-sions of ASME Section IX, ( 2 ) heat treated in accordance withSection 7 of this specification, and ( 3 ) radiographically exam-ined throughout the entire length of each weld in accordancewith Article 2, ASME Section V with acceptance limits inaccordance with Paragraph UW-51 of ASME Section VIII,Division 1 of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. Inplace of radiographic examination, welds may be ultrasonicallyexamined in accordance withAppendix 12 of  Section VIII. The NDE of welds in Grades WPB, WPC, WP1, WP11 Class 1,WP11 Class 2, WP11 Class 3, WP12 Class 1, WP12 Class 2,and WPR may be performed either prior to or after forming.NDE of welds in Grades WP5, WP9, WP91, WP911, WP22Class 1, and WP22 Class 3 shall be done after forming.6.3 Personnel performing NDE examinations shall be quali-fied in accordance with SNT-TC-1A. TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements N OTE  1—All requirements are maximum unless otherwise indicated.N OTE  2—Where an ellipsis (...) appears in this table, there is no requirement. Grade andMarkingSymbol A Composition, %Carbon Manganese Phospho-rus, maxSulfur,max Silicon Chromium Molybdenum Nickel Copper OthersWPB B  , C  , D  , E  , F   0.30 max 0.29–1.06 0.050 0.058 0.10 min 0.40 max 0.15 max 0.40 max 0.40 max Vanadium 0.08 maxWPC C  , D  , E  , F   0.35 max 0.29–1.06 0.050 0.058 0.10 min 0.40 max 0.15 max 0.40 max 0.40 max Vanadium 0.08 maxWP1 0.28 max 0.30–0.90 0.045 0.045 0.10–0.50 . . . 0.44–0.65 . . . . . . . . .WP12 CL1, 0.05–0.20 0.30–0.80 0.045 0.045 0.60 max 0.80–1.25 0.44–0.65 . . . . . . . . .WP12 CL2 . . .WP11 CL1 0.05–0.15 0.30–0.60 0.030 0.030 0.50–1.00 1.00–1.50 0.44–0.65 . . . . . . . . .WP11 CL2, 0.05–0.20 0.30–0.80 0.040 0.040 0.50–1.00 1.00–1.50 0.44–0.65 . . . . . . . . .WP11 CL3 . . .WP22 CL1, 0.05–0.15 0.30–0.60 0.040 0.040 0.50 max 1.90–2.60 0.87–1.13 . . . . . . . . .WP22 CL3 . . .WP5 CL1, 0.15 max 0.30–0.60 0.040 0.030 0.50 max 4.0–6.0 0.44–0.65 . . . . . . . . .WP5 CL3 . . .WP9 CL1,WP9 CL30.15 max 0.30–0.60 0.030 0.030 1.00 max 8.0–10.0 0.90–1.10 . . . . . . . . .WPR 0.20 max 0.40–1.06 0.045 0.050 . . . . . . . . . 1.60–2.24 0.75–1.25 . . .WP91 0.08–0.12 0.30–0.60 0.020 0.010 0.20–0.50 8.0–9.5 0.85–1.05 0.40 max . . . Vanadium 0.18–0.25Columbium 0.06–0.10Nitrogen 0.03–0.07Aluminum 0.04 maxWP911 0.09–0.13 0.30–0.60 0.020 0.010 0.10–0.50 8.5–9.5 0.90–1.10 0.40 max . . . Vanadium 0.18–0.25Columbium 0.060–0.10Nitrogen 0.04–0.09Aluminum 0.04 maxBoron 0.0003–0.006Tungsten 0.90–1.10 A When fittings are of welded construction, the grade and marking symbol shown above shall be supplemented by letter “W”. B  Fittings made from bar or plate may have 0.35 max carbon. C  Fittings made from forgings may have 0.35 max carbon and 0.35 max silicon with no minimum. D  For each reduction of 0.01 % below the specified carbon maximum, an increase of 0.06 % manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted, up to amaximum of 1.35 %. E  The sum of Copper, Nickel, Chromium, and Molybdenum shall not exceed 1.00 %. F   The sum of Chromium and Molybdenum shall not exceed 0.32 %. A 234/A 234M – 05a 2 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account); Wed Jun 22 10:45:46 EDT 2005   Copyright ASTM International Reproduced by IHS under license with ASTM Licensee=Unocal/5958404002, User=Herawati, Susi Not for Resale, 10/12/2005 18:18:02 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --` `   ,`   ,  ,  ,  ,`   ,` ` `   ,  ,  ,`   ,` ` ` `   ,  ,  ,  ,  ,`   ,-` -`   ,  ,`   ,  ,`   ,`   ,  ,` ---  6.4 The welded joints of the fittings shall be finished inaccordance with the requirements of Paragraph UW-35 (  a ) of ASME Section VIII, Division 1.6.5 All butt-weld tees manufactured by cold-forming meth-od(s) shall be liquid penetrant or magnetic particle examinedby one of the methods specified in Supplementary RequirementS52 or S53 in Specification A 960/A 960M. This examination shall be performed after final heat treat. Only the side wall areaof the tees need be examined. This area is defined by a circlethat covers the area from the weld bevel of the branch outlet tothe center line of the body or run. Internal and external surfacesshall be examined when size permits accessibility. No cracksshall be permitted. Other imperfections shall be treated inaccordance with Section 13 on Surface Quality. After theremoval of any crack, the tee(s) shall be re-examined by theoriginal method. Acceptable tees shall be marked with thesymbol PT or MT, as applicable, to indicate compliance.6.6 Stubends may be produced with the entire lap added bythe welding of a ring, made from plate or bar of the same alloygrade and composition, to the outside of a straight section of pipe, provided the weld is double welded, is a full penetration TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements N OTE  1—Where an ellipsis (...) appears in this table, there is no requirement. Grade and Marking Symbol WPBWPC,WP11 CL2,WP12 CL2 WP1WP11 CL1,WP22 CL1,WP5 CL1WP9 CL1WPRWP11 CL3,WP22 CL3WP5 CL3WP9 CL3WP91 WP911 WP12 CL1Tensile strength, range ksi [MPa] 60–95[415–655]70–95[485–655]55–80[380–550]60–85[415–585]63–88[435–605]75–100[520–690]85–110[585–760]90–120[620–840]60–85[415–585]Yield strength, min, ksi [MPa](0.2 % offset or 0.5 %extension-under-load)35 [240] 40 [275] 30 [205] 30 [205] 46 [315] 45 [310] 60 [415] 64 [440] 32 [220]Elongation RequirementsGradesAll Grades except WPR,WP91, and WP911 WPR WP91WP911Longi-tudinalTrans-verseLongi-tudinalTrans-verseLongi-tudinalTrans-verseElongation:Standard round specimen, or small proportional specimen, min % in 4 D 22 14 20 . . . 20 . . .Rectangular specimen for wall thickness  5  ⁄  16  in. [7.94 mm] and over,and for all small sizes tested in full section; min % in 2 in. [50 mm]30 20 A 28 . . . . . . . . .Rectangular specimen for wall thickness less than  5  ⁄  16  in. [7.94 mm];min % in 2 in. [50 mm] ( 1  ⁄  2 -in. [12.7-mm] wide specimen) B B B  . . . . . . . . . A WPB and WPC fittings manufactured from plate shall have a minimum elongation of 17 %. B  For each  1  ⁄  32  in. [0.79 mm] decrease in wall thickness below  5  ⁄  16  in. [7.94 mm], a deduction of 1.5 % for longitudinal and 1.0 % for transverse from the values shownabove is permitted. The following table gives the minimum value for various wall thicknesses.Wall ThicknessGradesAll Grades except WPR, WP91 and WP911 WPR WP91 and WP911in. [mm] Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Longitudinal 5  ⁄  16  (0.312) 7.94 30.0 20.0 28.0 20 9  ⁄  32  (0.281) 7.14 28.5 19.0 26.5 19 1  ⁄  4  (0.250) 6.35 27.0 18.0 25.0 18 7  ⁄  32  (0.219) 5.56 25.5 . . . 23.5 17 3  ⁄  16  (0.188) 4.76 24.0 . . . 22.0 16 5  ⁄  32  (0.156) 3.97 22.5 . . . 20.5 15 1  ⁄  8  (0.125) 3.17 21.0 . . . 19.0 14 3  ⁄  32  (0.094) 2.38 19.5 . . . 17.5 13 1  ⁄  16  (0.062) 1.59 18.0 . . . 16.0 12Note—This table gives the computed minimum % elongation value for each  1  ⁄  32  in. [0.79 mm] decrease in wall thickness. Where the wall thickness lies between twovalues above, the minimum elongation value is determined by the following equations:Direction of Test EquationLongitudinal  E  = 48 t   + 15.00Transverse  E  = 32 t   + 10.00where: E   = elongation in 2 in. or [50 mm], %, and t   = actual thickness of specimen, in. [mm]. A 234/A 234M – 05a 3 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account); Wed Jun 22 10:45:46 EDT 2005   Copyright ASTM International Reproduced by IHS under license with ASTM Licensee=Unocal/5958404002, User=Herawati, Susi Not for Resale, 10/12/2005 18:18:02 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --` `   ,`   ,  ,  ,  ,`   ,` ` `   ,  ,  ,`   ,` ` ` `   ,  ,  ,  ,  ,`   ,-` -`   ,  ,`   ,  ,`   ,`   ,  ,` ---   joint, satisfies the requirements of  6.2 for qualifications and7.3.3 for post weld heat treatment. 7. Heat Treatment 7.1  Heat Treatment Procedures —Fittings, after forming atan elevated temperature, shall be cooled to a temperaturebelow the critical range under suitable conditions to preventinjurious defects caused by too rapid cooling, but in no casemore rapidly than the cooling rate in still air. Heat treatmenttemperatures specified are metal (part) temperatures. Heat-treated fittings shall be treated according to paragraph 7 inSpecification A 960/A 960M.7.2  WPB, WPC, and WPR Fittings :7.2.1 Hot-formed WPB, WPC, and WPR fittings uponwhich the final forming operation is completed at a temperatureabove 1150 °F [620 °C] and below 1800 °F [980 °C] need notbe heat treated provided they are cooled in still air.7.2.2 Hot-formed or forged WPB, WPC, and WPR fittingsfinished at temperature in excess of 1800 °F [980 °C] shallsubsequently be annealed, normalized, or normalized andtempered. Hot-forged fittings NPS 4 or smaller need not beheat treated.7.2.3 WPB, WPC, and WPR fittings over NPS 12, producedby locally heating a portion of the fitting stock to anytemperature for forming, shall be subsequently annealed,normalized, or normalized and tempered. Fittings such aselbows, tees, header tees, reducers and lap joint stub ends witha carbon content less than 0.26 %, NPS 12 and under, shall notrequire heat treatment after forming a locally heated portion of the fitting.7.2.4 Cold-formed WPB, WPC, and WPR fittings, uponwhich the final forming operation is completed at a temperaturebelow 1150 °F [620 °C], shall be normalized, or shall be stressrelieved at 1100 to 1275 °F [595 to 690 °C].7.2.5 WPB, WPC, and WPR fittings produced by fusionwelding and having a nominal wall thickness at the welded joint of   3  ⁄  4  in. [19 mm] or greater shall be post-weld heat treatedat 1100 to 1250 °F [595 to 675 °C], or in accordance with 7.2.6.7.2.6 At the option of the manufacturer, WPB and WPCfittings produced by any of the methods in Section 6 may beannealed, normalized, or normalized and tempered.7.3  Fittings Other than WPB, WPC, and WPR :7.3.1 Fittings of Grades WP1, WP11 Class 1, WP11 Class 2,WP11 Class 3, WP12 Class 1, WP12 Class 2, WP22 Class 1,WP22 Class 3, WP5, and WP9 shall be furnished in thefull-annealed, isothermal-annealed, or normalized and tem-pered condition. If normalized and tempered, the temperingtemperature for WP11 Class 1, WP11 Class 2, WP11 Class 3,WP12 Class 1, and WP12 Class 2 shall not be less than 1150°F [620 °C]; for Grades WP5, WP9, WP22 Class 1, and WP22Class 3 the tempering temperature shall not be less than 1250°F [675 °C].7.3.2 Fittings of Grades WP1, WP12 Class 1, or WP12Class 2 either hot formed or cold formed may be given a finalheat treatment at 1200 °F [650 °C] instead of the heat treatmentspecified in 7.3.1.7.3.3 Fittings in all thicknesses produced by fusion weldingafter the heat treatment specified in 7.3.1 shall be post-weldheat treated at a temperature not less than prescribed above fortempering except that Grade WP1 is required to be post-weldheat treated only when the nominal wall thickness at thewelded joint is  1  ⁄  2  in. [13 mm] or greater.7.3.4 Except when Supplementary Requirement S1 is speci-fied by the purchaser, Grade WP91 shall be normalized at 1900°F [1040 °C] minimum, and 1975 °F [1080 °C] maximum, andtempered in the temperature range of 1350 °F [730 °C] to 1470°F [800 °C] as a final heat treatment.7.3.5 Grade WP911 shall be normalized in the temperaturerange of 1900 to 1975 °F [1040 to 1080 °C], and tempered inthe temperature range of 1365 to 1435 °F [740 to 780 °C] as afinal heat treatment.7.4  WPB and WPC Fittings Made from Bar  — Cold-finishedbars reduced in cross-sectional area more than 10 % by colddrawing or cold rolling are not acceptable for use in themanufacture of these fittings unless the bars have been eitherstress relieved in the temperature range of 1100 to 1250 °F[595 to 675 °C], normalized, normalized and tempered, or fullyannealed. Mechanical testing must be performed subsequent tothe final heat-treating operation.7.5 Liquid quenching followed by tempering shall be per-mitted for all grades when approved by the purchaser. Mini-mum tempering temperature shall be 1100 °F [595 °C] forWPB, WPC, and WPR, 1150 °F [620 °C] for Grades WP1,WP11 Class 1, WP11 Class 2, WP11 Class 3, WP 12 Class 1,and WP12 Class 2 and 1250 °F [675 °C] for Grades WP5,WP9, WP22 Class 1, and WP22 Class 3, and 1350 °F [730 °C]for Grade WP91 and WP911. 8. Chemical Composition 8.1 The chemical composition of each cast or heat usedshall be determined and shall conform to the requirements of the chemical composition for the respective materials listed inTable 1. The ranges as shown have been expanded to includevariations of the chemical analysis requirements that are listedin the various specifications for the starting materials (pipe,tube, plate, bar, and forgings) normally used in the manufac-turing of fittings to this specification.8.2 The steel shall not contain any unspecified elements forthe ordered grade to the extent that it conforms to therequirements of another grade for which that element is aspecified element having a required minimum content.8.3 Weld metal used in the construction of carbon-steelfittings shall be mild steel analysis No. A1 of Table QW-442,Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, No.A2 may be used for Grade WPCW.8.4 The molybdenum and chromium content of the depos-ited weld metal of alloy steel fittings shall be within the samepercentage range as permitted for the base metal. 9.  Tensile Requirements  Tensile Requirements9.1 The tensile properties of the fitting material shall con-form to the requirements listed in Table 2.9.1.1 Specimens cut either longitudinally or transverselyshall be acceptable for the tension test.9.1.2 While Table 2 specifies elongation requirements forboth longitudinal and transverse specimens, it is not the intentthat both requirements apply simultaneously. Instead, it is A 234/A 234M – 05a 4 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account); Wed Jun 22 10:45:46 EDT 2005   Copyright ASTM International Reproduced by IHS under license with ASTM Licensee=Unocal/5958404002, User=Herawati, Susi Not for Resale, 10/12/2005 18:18:02 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --` `   ,`   ,  ,  ,  ,`   ,` ` `   ,  ,  ,`   ,` ` ` `   ,  ,  ,  ,  ,`   ,-` -`   ,  ,`   ,  ,`   ,`   ,  ,` ---
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