A Mother's Love: Crafting Feminine Virtue in Enlightenment France, by Lesley H. Walker, Bucknell Univ. Press

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A Mother's Love: Crafting Feminine Virtue in Enlightenment France, by Lesley H. Walker, Bucknell Univ. Press Paintings are denoted in the index by the letter f following the page number. A Abundance, figure
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A Mother's Love: Crafting Feminine Virtue in Enlightenment France, by Lesley H. Walker, Bucknell Univ. Press Paintings are denoted in the index by the letter f following the page number. A Abundance, figure of, 119, 120 Académie de Saint-Luc, 117 Académie française, 141; dictionary of, 30; directors of, 139; and Genlis, 27, 103, ; Montyon Prize, 27, 163 Académie royale, 44, 53, 109; and Largillierre, 51, 53; and Vigée Lebrun, 117, 119, 122, 218n.57; women and, 216n.41 Adèle et Théodore (Genlis), 103, , 225n.63, 225n.64; gothic subplots in, , 159, 161, 163; and maternal agency, 179, 224n.61; mother-daughter relationship in, ; mother figure, 228n.28; nature of women's labor, ; pedagogy in, , 161, 178, 186; suffering in, Adorno, Theodor, 135; Dialetic of Enlightenment, 224n.59 Adventures of Telemachus, The (Fénelon), 22, 37 38, 56, 71, , 202n.1 aesthetics of terror, , 162 agency, feminine, 19, 178, 210n.45, 228n.28. See also maternal agency agency, maternal. See maternal agency alienation, social and political, 166 allegory, portraits as, 48 49, 51, alliance system, 25 26, 28 Althusser, Louis, 76 77, 81, 209n.24 American Historical Association, 18 amorous language, Amphithéâtre sanglant (Camus), 223n.54 anatomy, comparative, 134, , 144 Andromaque (Racine), 177 antinoble sentiment, Arouet, François-Marie. See Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) art, theories of, 119 Atala (Chateaubriand), , 179, 181, 188, 191, 226n.6, 226n.12 Aubry, Charles-Lénor, 46 Au Génie de Franklin (Gérard), 109 Augustine, 200n.37 autonomous male, Avis d'une mère à sa fille (Lambert), 42, 43 B Bachaumont, Louis Petit de, 216n.38 Badinter, Elisabeth, 23, , 202n.10; Mother Love, 198n.22 Baillio, Joseph, 122, 130 Balzac, Honoré: Comédie humaine, 188; Le Lys dans la Vallée, 28 Barker, Emma, 123; Greuze and the Painting of Sentiment, 30, 200n.36, 215n.32 Baudouin, Pierre-Antoine, 107 Beauvoir, Simone de, 131, 218n.67 Belle, Alexis-Simon ( ), 26, 46; Madame de Sablonnière and Her Daughter, 49, 50f, 51 Beloved Mother, The (Greuze), 95 97, 96f, 106 7, , 116, 215n.32, 216n.37, 220n.88 Besançon Academy, 145 Bhabha, Homi K.: The Location of Culture, 197n.11 Bibliographie du genre Romanesque français, , 20 Blum, Carol: Rousseau and the Republic of Virtue, 58 Bosc, Louis-Augustin-Guillaume, 85, 86, Botticelli, Sandro, 200n.37 Boucher, François, 53, 108, 113; Erigone vaincue, 48 breasts, as metaphor, 116 Broglie, Gabriel de, 214n.21 Brouard-Arends, Isabelle: Vies et images maternelles dans la littérature au dix-huitième siècle, 60; Vies et Images maternelles dans la littérature française de XVIIIè siècle, 199n.25 Bryson, Norman, 46, 53, 96 97, , 216n.37; Word and Image, 107, 113, 220n.88 Butler, Judith, 209n.45 C Caffiaux, Philippe-Joseph: Défense du Beau Sexe, 39 Cailleux, Pierre, 203n.27 Camus, Jean-Pierre: Amphithéâtre sanglant, 223n.54; Evénements singuliers, 223n.54; Spectacles d horreur, 223n.54 Candide (Voltaire), 68, 206n.64 candlestick, symbolic meaning, Cannet, Sophie, 86 87, 89, 140, Can the Subaltern Speak? (Spivak), 197n.11 Caplan, Jay: Framed Narratives, 210n.52 Cassirer, Ernst, 70 Catherine Coustard, Marquise de Castelenau, Wife of Charles-Lénor Aubry and Her Son (Largillierre), 46, 47f, Catholic reform movement, See also reform Causes célébres et intérssantes (Pitaval), 156 Champagneux, L.A.: Discours Préliminaire, 212n.80 Chardin, Jean-Baptiste-Siméon ( ), 24 25, 57, 113, 114, 204n.38; The Diligent Mother, 53, 54f, 68; genre paintings, 56; The Good Education, 53; Johnson on, 45 46, 48 49; and maternal agency, 67 68; The Morning Toilette, 45, 53 56, 55f Charrière, Isabelle de, 199n.24; Lettres de Mistriss Henley publiées par son amie, 198n.12; Lettres écrites de Lausanne, 163, 225n.67 1 Chartier, Roger, 23, 70 Chartres, duc de, 215n.21, 215n.22 Chartres, Mademoiselle de, chastity, 29 30, 78 Chateaubriand, François René: Atala, , 179, 181, 188, 191, 226n.6, 226n.12; Genie du christianisme, 181; on maternal loss, ; modernity of, 226n.11; René, 226n.6 childhood, as developmental stage, 48 children, artistic portrayals of, See also maternité; portraits choice, role of, 60 Chow, Rey, 82 83, 101, 209n.45, 210n.52; Ethics after Idealism, 197n.11 Christianity, 68, Clarissa (Richardson), 33, 71, 75, 134, 159, 186, 187 Clery, E. J., 173, 190 Comédie humaine (Balzac), 188 comparative anatomy, 134, , 144 compassion, complementarity, feminine, 39 Confessions (Rousseau), 75 consent, original, 76 77, 81 consolation, 35 36, 67, 88, , See also sacrifice; suffering Constant, Benjamin, , 186, 187 Contes moraux (Le Prince de Beaumont), Convent of Ernemont, 60 convent schools, Conversations d'emilie, Les (Epinay), 163, 199n.25 Correspondance littéraire, 104 corrupt culture, 143, Coustard, Catherine, 46 Coustard, Marie-Anne Madeleine, 48 Crozat, Louis-Antoine, 51 Crozat, Pierre, 51 cultural institutions, nature of, 141 culture: corruption of, ; decadence of, 22, 38, 63 64, 108; reform of (see reform) D Daniels, Charlotte: Subverting the Family Romance, 21 22, 225n.67 Darnton, Robert, 16, 70, 202n.1; Great Cat Massacre, 93, 213n.83 daughters. See also mother-daughter relationship: as agents of reform, 65; enlightenment of, 27, ; and sacrifice, 83; virtuous, 26, 65 66, 72, 89 David, Jacques-Louis, 135, , 161; The Lictors Returning to Brutus the Bodies of his Sons, , , 148f; The Oath of the Horatii, 147, 149 Death and the Mother from Dickens to Freud (Dever), 201n.53, 210n.47 decadence, 22, 38, 63 64, 108 Défense du Beau Sexe (Caffiaux), 39 DeJean, Joan, 16, 19, 20, 38; Tender Geographies, 196n.4 De l'égalité entre les deux sexes (Poullain de la Barre), 141 Délices de la maternité, Les (Jeune), 216n.45 Delphine (Staël), 28, 166, , , de Man, Paul, 138 deployment of sexuality, 25 26, 28 De Rerum Natura (Lucretius), 217n.52 Derrida, Jacques, 138 desire, youthful, Dever, Carolyn, 194, 209n.45; Death and the Mother from Dickens to Freud, 201n.53, 210n.47 Diaconoff, Suellen, 33, 206n.61; Through the Reading Glass, 29, 197n.5, 200n.34, 225n.65 Dialetic of Enlightenment (Adorno), 224n.59 Dictionnaire philosophique (Voltaire), Dictionnaire universal (Furetière), Diderot, Denis, 121, 162, 203n.24; Eloge de Richardson, 32 33, 92; on Greuze, 95 97, 106 7, 116, 215n.32; Sur les femmes, ; on Thomas, , ; on virtue, Didier, Béatrice, 212n.73 Diligent Mother, The (Chardin), 53, 54f, 68 Discourse on the Origins of Inequality (Rousseau), discourses of management, 17, Discours Préliminaire (Champagneux), 212n.80 division of labor, 137 domestic intimacy, 36, See also portraits domesticity, 15 36; enlightened, 21 23; feminist historiography, 17 21, 70 71; idealization of, 16; ideology of, 40; and maternal discourse, 23 29; Oedipus complex, 33 36, 133, 162, 194; theory of, 39; as tool of social reform, 19; and virtue, domestic sphere, 21, See also private sphere double causality. See dual causality Doyen de Killerine, Le (Prévost), 223n.54 dual causality, 140, 143 dual mother function, 84, 88 Duncan, Carol, , 114, 216n.45 E education. See also pedagogy: in Emile, ; and idealized mother figure, 43 44; moral, , 224n.59; role of mothers in, 37 68, , 194; theories of, 45, 61; as used to produce feminine virtue, 27; for women, 39 44, 202n.10 Eloge de Richardson (Diderot), 32 33, 92 emancipation, gradual, 19 20, 22 Emile (Rousseau), 79, 80, , 145, 161 Enlightenment, 206n.64; critique of, 198n.21; and discourses of management, 17, 22 23; and genre painting, 45, 56, ; ideals about mothers and children, 24, 27, 45 46, 135; ideals of, 206n.64; pedagogy, 151; and Providence, 67 68; role of novels and paintings in, 22 23; role of religion in, 68; and salonnière, 70, 196n.5; significance of women's cultural labor to, 19, 20 21; values, 200n.34; 2 women's contributions to, 20 21, 197n.5 Enlightenment motherhood, 17, 135, Epinay, Louise, 27, , 143, 145, 199n.24; Les Conversations d Emilie, 163, 199n.25 equality in difference, 41 Erigone vaincue (Boucher), 48 Ernemont, Convent of, 60 eroticism, 48 49, ; displaced into gowns, ; homoeroticism, 34 36; in maternité, ; and reformed love, ; transformed into maternal love, , 118, 121, ; and Vigée Lebrun, Essai sur le caractère, les moeurs et l'esprit des femmes dans les différents siècles (Thomas), 139 ethical behavior, Freud on, 34 ethical character, women's, 15 Ethics after Idealism (Chow), 197n.11 Eurocentricism, 197n.11 European Feminisms, (Offen), 196n.5 Evénements singuliers (Camus), 223n.54 exile, 172, See also homelessness, existential F Fabre, Jean, 156, 223n.54 faith, and reason, 68 familial intimacy, 22 23, 26 familial relationships, idealization of, Famille royale, La (Vigée Lebrun), 128, 129f, , 163, 219n.79, 219n.80 family, modern, 198n.23 Farrell, Michèle Longino: Performing Motherhood, 202n.11 Felski, Rita, 165, 166, 200n.31 female productivity, 19, 40 female sentiment, power of, 150 feminine agency, 19, 178, 210n.45, 228n.28. See also maternal agency feminine complementarity, 39 feminine grief, feminine power, 173 feminine subjectivity, 210n.49 feminine suffering. See suffering feminine virtue. See virtue femininity, naive, , 190 feminist historiography, 17 21, Femme n'est pas inférieure à l'homme, La (Puisieux), 39 Femmes de la Révolution, Les (Michelet), 28, Femmes en toutes lettres, 199n.25 Fénelon, François de la Mothe, 24 25, 53, 57; The Adventures of Telemachus, 22, 37 38, 56, 71, , 202n.1; educational theories of, 45, 61; on idealized mother figure, 41; and Lambert, 42 43; Traité de l'education des Filles, 40 42, 202n.10; on virtue, 58 fiction, 61 62, See also gothic fiction; novels Fictions of Feminine Desire (Kamuf), 205n.45 First Step of Childhood, The (Gérard), , 112, 112f Fort, Bernadette, 108, 216n.38, 218n.62 Fortunes de Madame de Sévigné au dix-septième et dixhuitième siècles, Les (Montfort Howard), 199n.28, 199n.29 Foucault, Michel, 17, 22 23, 25 26, 28; History of Sexuality, 25 Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth: French Women and the Age of Enlightenment, 207n.9 Fragonard, Jean-Honoré, 203n.24; and Gérard, , 116, 217n.47; The Return Home, 110; signature features, ; A Visit to the Nursery, 111, 111f Framed Narratives (Caplan), 210n.52 French Revolution, 16, 86, , French Romanticism, 226n.6 French school of painting, 44 French Women and the Age of Enlightenment (Fox- Genovese), 207n.9 Freud, Sigmund, 15; on ethical behavior, 34; on femininity, 196n.2; on gender differences, ; and motherdaughter relationships, 66; on Oedipus complex, 33 36, 133, 162, 194 Furetière, Antoine: Dictionnaire universal, G Galiani, Ferdinando, 141 Gay, Peter, 68, 70 gender: as analytical category, 17 19, 197n.11; of artists, 97 98; complementarity, 38, 39, , ; differences, , 205n.50; division of labor, 137; equality in difference, 41; hierarchies, ; relevance of, 18 19; theorization of, Gender and Voice in the French Novel (Wolfgang), 20, 196n.3 Genie du christianisme (Chateaubriand), 181 Genlis, Stéphanie Félicité de ( ), 24, 102 6, 199n.24, 225n.65, n.28; and Académie française, 27, 103, ; Adèle et Théodore, 103, , , , , 186, 224n.61, 225n.63, 225n.64, 228n.28; biographical information, 103 4, 214n.21; and domestic ideal, 193; evaluation of work, 214n.19; exile of, 172; as gouverneur, 103; L'Histore intéressante de la duchesse de C***, ; on maternal loss, ; La Mère rivale, 104 7, ; Les Mères rivales ou la Calomnie, 28, 166, , 185, 193; on moral education, , 224n.59; and mother-daughter relationships, 97, ; and nostalgia, 179, ; plays of, 215n.23; on productive nature of women's labor, ; and reform, 215n.26; and Robespierre, 224n.60 genre painting, 45, 56, Gérard, Marguerite ( ), 24, , ; Au Génie de Franklin, 109; eroticism displaced into gowns, ; and Fragonard, , 116, 217n.47; Happy Household, 114, 116; L'Enfant chéri, 109; maternité, 36, 97, 108; Maternité, 114, 115f; maternité, 194; La Première leçon d'équitation, 109; Le Premier pas de l'enfance (The First Steps of Childhood), , 112, 112f; social class indicators in portraits, 131 3 Good Education, The (Chardin), 53 Goodman, Dena, 16, 69 71, 142; The Republic of Letters, 20, 139, 196n.5 gothic fiction, ; emergence of, 223n.54; in England, 227n.17; heroines in, 185, , 193; Mémoires de Madame la Baronne de Batteville ou La Veuve Parfaite, , 214n.9; Les Mères rivales ou la Calomnie, 28, 166, , 185, 193; paradox of feminine power in, 173; subplots in Adèle et Théodore, , 159, 161, 163 Gouges, Olympe de: The Rights of Women , 18 gowns, eroticism displaced into, gradual emancipation, 19 20, 22 Graffigny, Françoise de: Lettres d'une péruvienne, 71; Peruvian Letters, 198n.12 Grandchamps, Sophie: Souvenirs, 91 Granderoute, Robert, 203n.12 Great Cat Massacre (Darnton), 93, 213n.83 Greuze, Jean-Baptiste ( ), 24 25, 102; La mère bien aimée (The Well-Beloved Mother), 95 97, 96f, 106 7, , 116, 215n.32, 216n.37, 220n.88 Greuze and the Painting of Sentiment (Barker), 30, 200n.36, 215n.32 grief, Grignan, Françoise de, 26 Grimard de Beaumont, Antoine, 60 Grimm, Melchior, 74 75, 139 Gueniffey, Patrice, 158 Guibert, François-Apolline, 139, 142 Gutwirth, Madelyn, 21, 173; The Twilight of the Goddesses, 198n.16, 228n.28 Gynographs (Stewart), H Habermas, Jürgen, 23, 69; Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, 21 Happy Household (Gérard), 114, 116 Hautecoeur, Louis, 217n.52 Havelange, Isabelle: Littérature à l'usage des demoiselles, 60 Herbert, Robert, heroines: in gothic fiction, 185, , 193; passive, , 185 Herold, J. Christophe, 228n.31 Hesse, Carla, 16; The Other Enlightenment, heterosexual love, 100, 104 5, 106, 216n.45. See also passion Histoires tragiques de notre temps (Rosset), 223n.54 historiography, feminist, 17 21, History of Sexuality (Foucault), 25 Hoeveler, Diane Long, 173, 175, 179, 185, 190 Holy Family imagery, 110, 114, 124, 128 homelessness, existential, 166, 170, Homer: Iliad, 120 homme sensible, homoeroticism, Horkeimer, Max, 135, 224n.59 human development: gender differences, ; mothers' role in, 34 35; Rousseau on, human value, Hunt, Lynn, 192 Hyde, Melissa, 19, 216n.41 I idealization of work, 38, 56 idealized mother figure, 15 16, 23, 194, 211n.60; Chateaubriand on, 171; and education, 43 44; Fénelon on, 41; shift toward, 71 72; Thomas on, idleness, 40 Iliad (Homer), 120 Incest and the English Novel, (Pollack), 220n.88 incest taboo, 66, 96 97, 132, 162, 220n.88 Indienne, 167, , 180, , 194 inner life, concentration on, 42 inner qualities, 77, institutions, cultural, 141 instrumental reason, concept of, 135 interiority, theory of, 43 intimacy, 36, 44 57, 203n.27; familial, 22 23, 26; portrayals by Gérard, ; portrayals by Vigée Lebrun, Irigaray, Luce, 218n.57 J Jensen, Katharine: Making Sense of the Ending , 204n.42; Mirror, Marriage, and Nostalgia, 202n.54 Jeune, Moreau Le: Les Délices de la maternité, 216n.45 J.H. Fragonard (Sheriff), 203n.24 Johnson, Dorothy, 45 46, 48 49, 53 55, 68 Jones, Paul: A List of French Prose Fiction from , 20 Journal des Sçavans, Le, 75 Julie ou La Nouvelle Héloïse (Rousseau), 22, 72 81, 202n.1, 228n.28, 228n.31; Darnton on, 213n.83; effect on readers, 84 85; and feminine virtue, 33; feminist critique of, 83; influence of, 72 73; Julie's attributes, 77, 209n.26; Julie's conversion, 81, 83 84; Julie's fall from innocence, 78; mother-daughter relationship in, 83 84, 93; mother's death, 82; popularity of, 73 75; and popularity of motherhood in fiction, 26 27; problem of consent in, 81; and Roland, 72 73, 85 94; Rousseau on, 75, 75 76; sacrifice in, 82, 210n.49; sexual dynamics in, 79 80; themes of, 71; virtue in, 73 74, 78; Voltaire on, 74, 96 Juno Borrowing the Belt of Venus (Vigée Lebrun), 117, 120 K Kaltz, Barbara, 60, 205n.54 Kamuf, Peggy, 59 60, 210n.49; Fictions of Feminine Desire, 205n.45 Kauffman, Angelica, 217n.54 4 L La Blancherie, Pahin de: Nouvelles de la République des Lettres, 211n.62; Salon de la Correspondance, 211n.62 labor, 42 43, , 137 Laborde, Alice M.: L'Oeuvre de Madame de Genlis, 214n.19 Laclos, Pierre Choderlos de: Les Liaisons dangereuses, 160 Lafayette, Marie-Madeleine ( ), 93; La Princesse de Cléves, 25 26, 33, 57 60, 65 66, 199n.27, 204n.42, 205n.45, 210n.49 Lagrenée, Louis-Jean-François, 217n.52 La Harpe, Jean-François, 104 Lambert, Anne-Thérèse de, 41 44, 57, 71, 203n.12; Avis d'une mère à sa fille, 42, 43 L'Ami des hommes (Mirabeau), 67 Landes, Joan, 16, 21, 69 70, 147, 149, 192; Women in the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution, 69, 197n.9, 207n.9 Laplanche, Jean, 82 Largillierre, Nicolas de ( ), 26, 203n.27; Catherine Coustard, Marquise de Castelenau, Wife of Charles-Lénor Aubry and Her Son, 46, 47f, 48 49; as director of Académie royale, 51, 53 Lavrac, Robert, 203n.27 Le Bas, Philippe, 56 Lebrun, Baptiste Pierre, 117 Lebrun, Charles, 44 Legrand, Abbé, 89 L'Enfant chéri (Gérard), 109 Lépicié, François Bernard: La Mère diligent, 56 Le Prince de Beaumont, Jeanne Marie ( ), 24, 26, 57 58, 60 67, 71, 97, 199n.24; biographical information, 60 62; choice to write novels, 61 62; Contes moraux, 61 62; Lettres de Madame du Montier (see Lettres de Madame du Montier à la Marquise de ***, sa fille); Le Magasin des adolescentes, 61; Le Magasin des enfants, 61; on marriage, 205n.53; and maternal agency, 67 68; Mémoires de Madame la Baronne de Batteville ou La Veuve Parfaite, , 214n.9; and mother-daughter relationships, 34, ; on women's superiority, 61 L'Esprit des lois (Montesquieu), 69 letter writing, 26, Lettre à d'alembert (Rousseau), 74, 75 Lettres de Madame du Montier à la Marquise de ***, sa fille (Le Prince de Beaumont), 57 58, 60 67, 68, 72, 205n.54; compared to Mémoires de Madame la Baronne de Batteville, , 214n.9; comparison with La Princesse de Clèves, 65 66; critique of the wealthy, 64; and feminine virtue, 65; plot summary, Lettres de Mistriss Henley publiées par son amie (Charrière), 198n.12 Lettres d'une péruvienne (Graffigny), 71 Lettres écrites de Lausanne (Charrière), 163, 225n.67 Lettres sur la Nouvelle Héloïse ou Alosia de J.J. Rousseau citoyen de Genève (Voltaire), 74, 96 Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 133 L'Histore intéressante de la duchesse de C*** (Genlis), Liaisons dangereuses, Les (Laclos), 160 Lichtenstein, Jacqueline, 119 Lictors Returning to Brutus the Bodies of his Sons, The (David), , , 148f Linton, Marisa, 29, 33, 201n.51 Lippi, Filippo, 200n.37 List of French Prose Fiction from , A (Jones), 20 Littérature à l'usage des demoiselles (Havelange), 60 Location of Culture, The (Bhabha), 197n.11 Locke, John, 45, 53, 61, 161 L'Oeuvre de Madame de Genlis (Laborde), 214n.19 Louvre, Musée du, 131, 220n.86 love, , 100, See also maternal love; passion Lucretius: De Rerum Natura, 217n.52 Lyotard, François, 198n.21 Lys dans la Vallée, Le (Balzac), 28 M Madame Crozat de Thiers and Her Daughter (Nattier), 51, 52f, Madame de Genlis et le théâtre d education au XVIIIe siècle (Plagnol-Diéval), 199n.25 Madame de Sablonnière and Her Daughter (Belle), 49, 50f, 51 Madame Rousseau et sa fille (Vigée Lebrun), 220n.86 Magasin des adolescentes, Le (Le Prince de Beaumont), 61 Magasin des enfants, Le (Le Prince de Beaumont), 61 Maissin, Jeanne, 116 Making Sense of the Ending (Jensen), 204n.42 male, autonomous, management, discourses of, 17, Marie Antoinette (Queen of France), 38 39, 117, 122, 225n.62 Marie-Antoinette and her Children (Vigée Lebrun), 128, 129f, , 163, 219n.79, 219n.80 Marivaux, Pierre de: La Mère Confidente, 72, 207n.8 Marquise de Pezé and the Marquise de Rouget with her Children (Vigée Lebrun), , 124f, 126, 131 Marquise de Seignelay with her Two Children (Mignard), 46 marriage, 35, 59, 66, 205n.53. See also passion masculinity, masochism. See also sacrifice; suffering: and motherhood, 81 84; reciprocal, 93, 98, 101, 102, 105 masochistic incorporation, theory of, maternal agency, 16, 179, 186, 206n.64, 210n.45, 224n.61; as force for social change, 67 68; impotency of, 185; as productive force, 167 maternal beneficence, 187 maternal discourse, 16, 17, 35 36, 136, , 198n.16, 206n.64; abandonment of, 191; and domesticity, 23 29; importance to social change, ; unraveling of, ; in Vigée Lebrun paintings, 118 maternal images, represented differ
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